Basketball is a team sport with a ball.
Basketball is one of the most popular sports. Two teams play, each consisting of five field players: a total of 12 people in each team, replacements are not limited. The goal of each team is to throw the ball into the basket with their hands: a ring with the opponent’s net to prevent the other team from getting hold of the ball and throwing it into their own basket. Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the world. Basketball players are characterized by well-developed eye and a wide field of vision. Emotional game lifts a person’s mood, makes him sociable and contact.
Chapter 1: History of Basketball
The birthplace of basketball is considered to be the United States. The game was invented in December 1891 at the Christian Youth Association training center in Springfield, Massachusetts. To liven up gymnastics lessons, a young teacher, Dr. James Naismith, born in 1861 in Ramsay Township, Ontario, Canada, came up with a new game. He attached two bottomless fruit baskets of peaches to the railing of his balcony, into which a soccer ball was to be thrown (hence the name “basket”, “ball”). The meaning of this popular at the time of the game is as follows: throwing one, a small stone, it was necessary to hit him on top of another stone, larger in size. Already, as a physical education teacher and professor at Springfield College, D. Naismith faced the problem of creating a game for the Massachusetts winter, the period between baseball and soccer competitions. Naismith believed that because of the weather of that time of year, the best solution would be to invent a game for indoors. A year later, D. Naismith developed the first 13 points of basketball rules in less than an hour, sitting behind a desk in his office:
- The ball could be thrown in any direction with one or two hands.
- The ball may be hit with one or two hands in any direction, but never with a fist.
- A player may not run for the ball. A player must pass or throw the ball into the basket from the point at which he catches it, except for a player running at good speed.
- The ball must be held with one or both hands. The forearms and body must not be used to hold the ball.
- No hitting, grabbing, holding or pushing an opponent is allowed in any case. The first violation of this rule by any player, must be recorded as a foul (foul play); a second foul disqualifies him until the next ball is scored and, if there was an obvious intent to injure the player, for the entire game, no substitution is allowed.
- Kicking the ball with the fist – violation of paragraphs 2 and 4, the penalty is described in paragraph 5.
- If both sides commit three fouls in a row, they shall be recorded for a goal, for opponents (this means that during this time opponents must not commit any foul).
- A goal is scored if the ball, thrown or bounced off the floor, hits the basket and stays there. Defending players are not allowed to touch the ball or the basket at the time of the shot. If the ball touches the edge and opponents move the basket, a goal is scored.
- If the ball goes into touch (outside the court), it shall be thrown into the field and the first player to touch it. In the event of a dispute, the referee shall throw the ball into the rink. The throw-in player is allowed to hold the ball for five seconds. If he holds it longer, the ball is given to the opponent. If either side tries to stall, the referee must give them a foul.
- The referee shall monitor players’ actions and fouls and notify the referee of three consecutive fouls. He has the authority to disqualify players according to rule 5.
- The referee shall keep an eye on the ball and determine when the ball is in play and when it goes into touch, which side should have possession of the ball, and any other actions normally performed by the referees.
- The game consists of two halves of 15 minutes each with a 5 minute break in between.
- The side that scores the most goals in this time period is the winner.
But already the first matches under these rules caused them to change. Although most of them are still in effect today. Fans on balconies would catch flying balls and try to throw them into the basket of the opponent. Therefore, shields soon appeared, which became a protection for the basket. February 12, 1892, after learning the rules and mastering the basics of technique, students of Springfield College in the presence of a hundred spectators held the first in the history of basketball “official” game, which ended peacefully with the result 2:2.
Its success was so resounding, and word of the new game spread so rapidly, that the two Springfield teams soon held exhibition games, drawing hundreds of spectators. Students at other colleges took up the cause, and the next year basketball fever swept across the American northeast. As early as 1893 iron rings with a net appeared. The new game was so interesting and dynamic that in 1894 the first official rules were published in the USA. At the same time, basketball from the U.S. first penetrated to the East – to Japan, China, the Philippines and then to Europe and South America. In 1895, free throws from a distance of 5 m 25 cm were introduced. Dribbling in all its variants was legalized in 1896. The spontaneous formation of amateur teams and leagues led to a student body that pursued basketball exclusively, preferring it not only to such traditional games as American soccer and baseball, but also to the college trustees’ favorite gymnastics. Officials of the Young Men’s Christian Association, responding to the complaints of opponents of the new trend, have practically slammed the doors of college gymnasiums. But banning the fast-growing new sport was like trying to stop a runaway train. Ten years later, at the Olympics in St. Louis (USA), the Americans organized a demonstration tournament between teams from several cities.
In 1920, it was included in the school curriculum, which was studied along with soccer as a compulsory discipline. Also at this time begin to actively create national basketball federations and the first international meetings are held. In 1919, for example, a basketball tournament was held between the army teams of the United States, Italy and France. In 1923 the first international women’s tournament is held in France. The game becomes more and more popular and recognized in the world, and in 1935 the International Olympic Committee decides to recognize basketball as an Olympic sport. Teams from 21 countries took part in the basketball tournament.
Matches were played on outdoor tennis courts; all subsequent Olympic tournaments were held indoors. The first Olympic champion was the U.S. team.
Chapter 2: Basic Rules of the Game
Basketball is played by two teams, each with five players. The goal of each team in basketball is to throw the ball into the opposing team’s basket and prevent the other team from possessing the ball and throwing it into the basket.
The winning team in basketball is the team with the most points at the end of game time.
The playing basketball court should be a flat rectangular hard surface without any obstacles. The dimensions should be 28 meters long and 15 meters wide.
Basketball backboards with baskets must be made of appropriate clear material or painted white. The dimensions of the basketball backboards shall be: 1.80 m horizontally and 1.05 m vertically.
Basketball rings must be made of strong steel, inner diameter 45 cm. The bar of the ring must have a minimum diameter of 16 mm and a maximum diameter of 20 mm. The bottom of the ring must have fixtures for attaching nets.
The basketball must be spherical in shape and be orange in color with the traditional pattern of eight inserts and black seams. The circumference of the ball must be no less than 74.9 cm and no more than 78 cm. The weight of the ball must be no less than 567 g and no more than 650 g.
According to the rules of basketball the game consists of four periods of ten minutes with breaks of two minutes. The duration of the break between halves of the game is fifteen minutes. If the score is tied at the end of the fourth period, the game is extended for an extra period of five minutes or as many periods of five minutes as necessary to break the tie. Teams must switch baskets before the third period. The game officially begins with a contested shot in the center circle when the ball is correctly rebounded by one of the contestants.
In basketball, the ball is only played with the hands. Running with the ball, deliberately kicking it, blocking it with any part of the foot, or hitting it with your fist is an offense. Accidentally touching or touching the ball with your foot or leg is not an offence.
If a player accidentally throws the ball from the court into his basket, points shall be awarded to the opposing captain.
If a player intentionally throws the ball from the court into his basket, it is an infraction and no points are scored.
If a player forces the ball into the basket from below, this is an infraction. A turnover occurs when a player holds the live ball on the court and steps one or more times in any direction with the same foot, while the other foot, called the supporting foot, maintains its place of contact with the floor.
Each time a player gains control of a live ball on the court, his team must make a shot attempt at the basket within twenty-four seconds.
These are just some important excerpts from the rules of basketball. In general, the official rules of basketball of the International Basketball Federation is a big 100-page manual that covers all the nuances of the rules.
Chapter 3: Game Techniques
You will enjoy the game the most if you know how to do the fundamentals correctly: passing, dribbling, shooting to the basket, defense, rebounding and catching the ball off the board. The most important first rule is to hold the ball with your fingers and never put your hands around it.
Passing is the easiest and most efficient way to move the ball to your opponent’s basket. Their main types: passes with two hands from the chest, two hands from below, one hand from the shoulder, one and two hands with a bounce from the floor.
To catch a ball, you must extend your hands to it with fingers spread and, as soon as it touches your fingers, bend your arms, pulling the ball to your chest.
The technique of the passes themselves is simple. They usually require a small swing and a “shooting” arm movement with the ball in the direction of a partner.
Driving the ball. A player can move the ball on the court only by consistently hitting the ball on the floor with one or the other hand. When dribbling the ball a few simple rules must be followed:
- Pushing the ball to the floor is done mainly by the movement of the fingers and hand. Hitting the ball with the palm of the hand would be a mistake.
- You should not look down at the ball – you must keep your head up to see the other players and the court as a whole.
- When leading with the right hand the ball is held slightly to the side, in front to the right and with the left hand to the side, in front to the left.
- The player must be in between the ball and a defender. His legs are bent and his body is bent forward. This position hides the ball from the defender, provides sufficient speed and avoids errors on the dribble.
Throwing the ball to the basket.
There are the following ways to throw the ball into the basket:
- One-handed throw from under the basket from above
- One-handed shot from the floor
- Jump shot
- Shield shot
Chapter 4. Violations
Out – the ball goes outside the playing area.
Rushing – a player in control of a live ball moves his feet beyond the limits set by the Laws.
Offence of running the ball, which includes carrying the ball, double running.
3 seconds – An offensive player is in the “paint” (rectangular area under the ring) of the opponent for more than three seconds while his team possesses the live ball in the offensive zone.
5 seconds – the player does not part with the ball for five seconds when taking the throw-in.
The tightly guarded player does not start the drive, pass or throw in the ring for 5 seconds.
8 seconds – the team in possession of the ball in the back court did not put the ball in the front court within eight seconds.
24 seconds – the team was in possession of the ball for more than 24 seconds and did not take a shot at the ring. The 24-second clock is reset if the ball touches the hoop. The attacking team can then rebound on offense and qualify for another 24-second possession. If the defending team receives a foul or violation (other than the ball going out of bounds) or other stoppage of play, the attacking team is entitled to:
- A new 24-second possession if the throw-in occurs in the defensive zone of the team in possession of the ball;
- a new 24 second possession if the throw-in occurs in the defending zone of the team in possession; – A new 14 second possession;
- New 14-second possession if 13 seconds or less of possession remain.
A foul is a return of the ball to the defense zone (zone) – the team in possession of the ball in the offensive zone has moved it to the defense zone.
A foul is a noncompliance caused by personal contact or unsportsmanlike conduct. Types of fouls:
- Personal – a foul to a player due to contact with an opponent;
If the player, who was pushed, at the time was making a shot and the ball did not hit the basket, he is entitled to two free throws, which he performs without interference from – behind the free throw line. This 3.6 meter long line is drawn parallel to the front line at a distance of 4.6 meters from the front surface of the board. A point is awarded for a successful free throw. If one or both attempts are unsuccessful, the player is entitled to an additional shot. The athlete must remain behind the free throw line until the ball touches the ring or the backboard. Until this time, no player may enter the free throw area. If the last shot is unsuccessful, both teams may compete for the ball that bounced off the ring.
If desired, the team may waive the right to free throws and enter the ball from behind the sideline along with its intersection with the center line. For an intentional foul (violation of the rules of the game) a player is always punished by two penalty shots.
A special form of foul is a technical foul. It is announced to the on-court player, coach or substitute for unsportsmanlike conduct, followed by a penalty – two free throws, which is carried out by any member of the opposing team. The ball is then put into play in the normal way. The coach or a substitute is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct with one penalty shot, and the kicking team keeps the ball and puts it into play from behind the sideline together with a crossing of the center line.
A player who receives five personal penalties is automatically out of the game. In case of gross violation of the rules athlete may be disqualified. In any case, eliminated from the game can be replaced by a substitute.
Chapter 5. Basketball as a Means of Healthy Living
In the world today, there are quite a few game sports. These are such as soccer, hockey, volleyball, water polo, tennis, badminton and others. It simply makes no sense to list them all. But a lot of people prefer basketball. Why, there are many reasons.
Basketball attracts those who are at least above average height. And the fact that people just want to improve their health by leading a healthy lifestyle is not the main reason.
At first glance, the sport may seem simple. It would seem: two teams pass the ball to each other and should hit the basket of the opponent as often as possible. Not at all! Enough to take into account the fact that the athlete runs for about 8 kilometers during the game, and you need to tactically allocate your forces for a powerful jump and lightning passes. You also need to consider a fairly high pace and dynamics of the game.
Basketball is one of the most popular games in our country. It is characterized by a variety of movements; walking, running, stopping, turning, jumping, catching, throwing and dribbling the ball, carried out in single combat with opponents. Such a variety of movements helps to improve metabolism, the activity of all body systems, form coordination.
What are the benefits of basketball?
- First of all, a person who is with the ball is not only very strong and enduring. He has a very good coordination of movements, and thanks to a variety of jumps, well-tuned vestibular apparatus. No less positive effect of basketball on the development of the respiratory system. Running at a fast pace in combination with jumps, very well strengthens the synergistic muscles, which are responsible for the mobility of the lungs.
- We should not forget to mention the nervous system. It is very well strengthened, thanks to the constant activity of many organs. Peripheral vision is very well developed, which greatly improves the perception of external factors. It is especially good for children.
- Cardiovascular system also does not stand aside. It is long known that basketball is an excellent way to stabilize blood pressure. Practicing basketball is another very important advantage.
- Everyone knows that tall people, and these are usually engaged in basketball, are very prone to stoop, which eventually contributes to the development of various spinal diseases. And the best prevention from this kind of habit is exactly, basketball.
Basketball has not only health and hygienic value, but also propaganda and educational. Practicing basketball helps to form perseverance, courage, determination, honesty, self-confidence and a sense of teamwork. But the effectiveness of education depends primarily on how purposefully implemented in the pedagogical process interaction of physical and moral education. As a means of physical education, found wide application in various parts of the physical education movement. In the system of public education, basketball is included in the program of physical preschool, general secondary, secondary, vocational, specialized secondary and higher education. It is a fascinating athletic game, which is an effective means of physical education. Not by chance it is very popular among schoolchildren. Basketball as an important means of physical education and health of children, included in the educational program of secondary schools, schools with polytechnic and industrial training, children’s sports schools, municipal departments of public education and sports departments of voluntary societies.
Thus, the constant change of game situations requires a high analytical activity and a quick choice of solutions. In the process of playing you can get a high emotional load and experience great joy and satisfaction. Consolidation of achieved results and further improvement of sports skills are closely intertwined with mass rehabilitation work and skilled training of the reserves from the most talented boys and girls. Constant struggle, which is carried out with the help of natural movements (running, walking, jumping), accompanied by painful efforts, has a very versatile impact on the psychological, physiological and motor functions of the person. By performing a large number of different movements at different paces, directions, with different speeds and strains, you get a beneficial effect on the internal organs and systems of the body. A variety of technical and tactical actions of the game of basketball and game activities themselves have unique properties for the formation of vital skills and abilities of students, all-round development of their physical and mental qualities.
Mastered motor actions of the game of basketball and related physical exercises are effective means of health promotion and recreation and can be used throughout his life in independent forms of physical education.