Deviant behavior is characteristic of people of all ages. The problem of deviant behavior has long been studied, but despite this and in the modern world remains relevant. This problem is a saturated problem of modern youth and adolescents. Deviant behavior is characteristic of almost all adolescents. Characteristic features of this age are sensitivity, frequent rapid change of mood, fear of ridicule, low self-esteem. For most children, over time, this passes by itself, but some need the help of a psychologist. So why do adolescents show signs of deviant behavior? What or who affects it? The answers to these questions we will try to find in the process of writing a research paper: “Deviant behavior in adolescents.
The aim of the project: to collect information and summarize the material about deviant behavior in adolescence, to identify the main types and causes of deviant behavior.
Project problem. In any society there are social norms by which this society lives. The social norm performs the role of regulation and control. These norms are embodied in laws, traditions, customs, that is, in everything that has become a habit, entered into the everyday life, in the image of the majority of the population, supported by public opinion. Deviation or non-observance of these norms is a social deviation or deviation. Deviant behavior among adolescents has become a particularly hot topic of late. To date, the current social situation is acquiring the features of pronounced instability, there is a destruction of the state system of social education, change of moral values, weakening of the upbringing and spiritual function of the family.
Hypothesis: Probably, deviant behavior in adolescence is a consequence of weakening of educational and spiritual function of the family, bad attitude to the child in the childhood and difficult interpersonal relations in the family.
1. to study theoretical material.
2. To consider the problem of deviant behavior in adolescence.
Interpret the results and draw conclusions.
Subject: causes of deviant behavior.
1. to study the literature on the subject.
2. To conduct a questionnaire survey among adolescents.
3. analysis of the obtained data.
The study was conducted in two stages:
Stage 1 – preparatory, during which scientific, research literature on the issue of identification, correction and prevention of deviant behavior was studied;
Stage 2 – practical, during which a questionnaire was administered to a group of adolescents and the results were interpreted.
Conclusion: whether the hypothesis about the causes of deviant behavior of adolescents, as a consequence of problems in the family, was confirmed.
Practical significance of the project lies in the fact that the findings and results of the work can be used to prepare and conduct a class hour, parent meeting, when planning preventive work in the educational process of the institution of general education.
Timeframe of the research: October 2019. – February 2020.
Chapter 1: Theoretical Part.
1.1.What is deviant behavior
Deviant behavior is behavior that deviates from the most common, generally accepted, as well as established norms and standards.
Deviant behavior is any actions that contradict actually established norms, standards and stereotypes in a particular community.
Deviant behavior is defined by deviant traits that do not correspond to officially established as well as generally accepted social norms. Non-normative behavior causes negative evaluation by people.
Deviant behavior of adolescents is marked by a characteristic focus on material, personal well-being, as well as on life according to the principle “as I want”, self-assertion by any means and at any cost. In most cases, young people are not driven by a desire to satisfy needs and self-interest in a criminal way, but are attracted to participation in the company in order to be seen as brave. Deviant behavior (behavioral deviation from the established socio-cultural norm) of adolescents is a common phenomenon, which is accompanied by the process of maturity and socialization, increasing throughout the teenage period and decreasing after the age of 18.
Features of deviant behavior of teenagers are noted in unstable mood in boys at the age of 11-13 years, and in girls at the age of 13-15 years. At this age, there is a pronounced stubbornness. Older children are interested in the right to autonomy as they search for their place in this life. There is a division of interests, abilities, a worldview is developed. Often, determination and perseverance coexist with instability and impulsiveness. The excessive self-confidence of teenagers and categoricalness are combined with uncertainty in one’s abilities. The desire for extended contacts combines with a desire for solitude, impudence with shyness, romanticism with cynicism and pragmatism, and the need for tenderness with sadism. Adolescent personality development is influenced by society and culture and is directly related to economic status as well as gender.
1.2 Forms of deviant behavior
The problem of deviant behavior has been addressed by representatives of various sciences such as philosophy, law, medicine, pedagogy, psychology, biology and of course sociology. Studies of deviant behavior in sociology largely played a role in its formation as a science through such figures as Gabriel Tarde, Emile Durkheim, Georg Simmel, Robert Merton, Pitirim Sorokin and others.
Scholars have investigated a variety of forms of social pathologies, such as
– Drug addiction;
Crime is a historically variable social and criminal-legal negative phenomenon, which is a system of crimes committed in a certain territory in a certain period of time.
Causes of juvenile delinquency:
– Unfavorable situation in the family;
The main cause of juvenile delinquency is a factor of upbringing in the family. Parents who are prone to violence and addictions can break the ability of normal personality formation. He will strive to get out of there by any means. One of them will be a crime.
– The disadvantages of the law-enforcement system;
Weakness of the bodies responsible for the prevention of juvenile crime is one of the most important reasons for the intensification of illegal acts.
– Deficiencies in school education.
It has been repeatedly emphasized that schools are engaged in coaching students for exams, ignoring the educational function. From the point of view of most psychologists, the school as a social institution is responsible for the formation of students. Consequently, focusing only on the level of knowledge is wrong.
Alcoholism is a chronic mental illness characterized by addiction to alcohol, with mental and physical dependence on it. The most common motive for adolescents to drink alcohol is curiosity and a desire to experience new sensations.
– Infertility and the inability to bear, give birth to and raise full-grown offspring;
– Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract;
– Inflammatory diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract;
– Decreased immune protection of the body, which leads to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases;
– Damage to the liver, development of hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver.
Drug addiction is a progressive disease caused by the use of narcotic substances.
Causes of use
– Biological (hereditary characteristics of the metabolism of neurotransmitters in the brain, contributing to a rapid addiction);
– Psychological (lack of clear life guidelines, weak will, desire for pleasure and the need to immediately get what you want without regard to the consequences);
– Social (the desire to “keep up” with other group members, the need to raise one’s status and impress others).
Suicide, suicide – deliberate deprivation of life, as a rule, independent and voluntary.
Causes of suicide in adolescents
– Unacceptance of the child in the family, too high demands of parents, or, on the contrary, inattention to the teenager;
– Conflicts at school, bullying by peers;
– The influence of the media and computer games;
– The use of drugs, alcohol and other psychotropic drugs.
1.3 Causes of deviant behavior in adolescents
In fact, deviant behavior is very complex in nature. It is caused by various factors that are in complex interaction and mutual influence. Among the causes that determine the deviant behavior of a person, we will distinguish the most significant:
– moral and ethical factors.
Biological ones are expressed in the existence of unfavorable anatomical or psychophysiological features of children’s bodies that make it difficult for them to adapt socially:
– genetic, these are those that are inherited, such as defects in vision and hearing, impaired mental development or damage to the nervous system;
– psychophysiological ones are related to the impact on the human body of conflict situations, the chemical composition of the environment, which lead to various toxic, somatic and allergic diseases;
– physiological include external unattractiveness, speech defects, which cause negative attitude of the environment, which leads to a distortion of the system of relationships among peers.
The psychological features of an adolescent may also determine the predisposition to deviant behavior. For example, personality traits within the psychological norm are a low level of self-control, propensity to risk, anxiety and aggressiveness, narrow range of interests, insufficiently formed communication skills, low stress tolerance, immaturity of personality, self-esteem disorders.
Social causes of deviant behavior of adolescents are unfavorable social environment (belonging to a deviant youth subculture); low status in the peer group, etc.
Family causes of deviant behavior are violation of child-parent; spousal relationships; abuse; insults; domestic violence; neglect; low social status of the family; neglect; mental illness of parents; asocial or criminal behavior of family members, serious changes, stress in the family.
Socio-economic factors of deviant behavior are social inequality; unemployment, stratification of society into poor and rich; restriction in socially acceptable ways of earning a decent living; impoverishment of the population; inflation and, as a rule, in the consequence of social tensions.
Moral and ethical factors are manifested in the low moral level of modern society, the destruction of values (primarily spiritual), the fall of morals, and on the other hand in the neutral attitude of society to the manifestations of deviant behavior.
Thus, the reasons for which a teenager chooses to engage in deviant behavior are very diverse. These reasons sometimes so subordinate the personality that it loses the will, the ability to think sensibly, to make decisions independently. All types of deviant behavior are extremely destructive, they make a person extremely susceptible and unhappy. The personality gradually begins to degenerate, losing social skills, losing familiar values and even its own positive qualities of character.
1.4 Preventing Deviant Behavior
It is believed that prevention of deviant behavior among adolescents is much easier than changing something, but our society still does not take enough measures to prevent deviance. The existing social difficulties (crime, drug addiction, alcoholism, etc.) force us to think about the problem and why it happens. Parents and teachers are worried: why does an open-minded child who strives for good, grows up and acquires asocial behavioral traits?
Deficiency of such concepts as kindness, mercy, respect nurtures an indifferent attitude to the fate of children. There is an increase in formal attitudes toward children in educational institutions, and the increase in the number of repeaters is being treated much more simply. Teachers are no longer concerned about sending children to boarding schools and special schools.
Prevention of deviant behavior should include monitoring of risk factors. Often the preconditions of deviant behavior are hidden in the family. The family gives the child basic, fundamental values, behavioral stereotypes and norms. The family forms the emotional sphere of the child’s psyche, but the defects of home upbringing are very difficult to correct. Nowadays parents and children’s joint activities are minimized. Deviations noticed in time and correctly rendered psychological and medical help can prevent the deformation of the teenager’s personality.
Prevention of deviant behavior includes two directions: measures of the general prevention and measures of special prevention.
General prevention measures refer to the involvement of all students in the life of the school and prevention of their failure.
Measures of special prevention ensure the possibility of identifying children in need of pedagogical special attention and carrying out corrective work on an individual level. The following elements of the system of special prevention are distinguished: identification and registration of children in need of special attention; analysis of causes of deviant behavior; and determination of measures of corrective work.
Chapter 2: The practical part.
2.1 Description of Testing
A questionnaire was administered to ninth grade students. The number of students was 29. The age of the students ranged from 15 to 16 years old. This study was conducted with each student individually. After explaining the instructions, the students proceeded to perform the task.
In the experiment an anonymous test composed by me and the project supervisor was used to determine if teenagers knew what deviant behavior was, what were the causes of deviant behavior in adolescence and what in their opinion were the main causes of deviant behavior in adolescence. The test consisted of three questions, to two of which adolescents had to choose an answer from the options put forward, and to the third question they had to express their personal opinion.
2.2 Analysis and interpretation of results:
|Do people know what deviant behavior is?||Causes of deviant behavior in adolescence (select 3 responses)||In your opinion, what is the main cause of deviant behavior in adolescence?|
|2.||˅||˅||˅||˅||Problems in the family|
- The causes of deviant behavior are:
- A) biological;
- B) psychological;
- C) social;
- D) family factors;
- E) socio-economic;
- F) moral and ethical factors.
Analysis of the results shows that:
– Most adolescents believe that people know “what deviant behavior is.”
– Teenagers believe that the causes of deviant behavior are specifically: B) psychological, C) social, D) family factors.
– In the question, “What do you think is the main reason for deviant behavior in adolescence?”, 31% of the teens surveyed chose psychological reasons; 24% chose family reasons and 21% chose social reasons.
– The smallest proportion of teens suggested that the Internet and biological factors were the main causes of deviant behavior in adolescence.
Thus, we can see that most of the surveyed students identified three main causes of deviant behavior among adolescents: psychological, social, and family.
With the help of the test we were able to identify the three main causes of deviant behavior in adolescence: social, psychological and family.
Thus, after studying the theoretical material and conducting the practical part, we were able to conclude that our hypothesis, about the family factor of deviant behavior in adolescence, was partially confirmed.
In the course of the project, the goal and objectives of the project were achieved.
In addition, we came to the conclusion: to prevent and prevent the emergence of deviant behavior in a teenager it is necessary:
-care to maintain emotionally positive relationships in the family, with peers and teachers;
-Involve the child in a healthy way of life and work;
-In difficult life situations, the child should know that he or she can ask for help from relatives;
-in urgent situations – to call a psychological help service.