1. Possible negative and hazardous factors of domestic nature.
2. Rules of action for personal safety in case of negative and dangerous factors of domestic character:
in places of mass gathering of people;
in the city: on the street, in public places, in elevators;
camping and in nature;
at water objects;
in case of household poisonings. 3.
3. Household electrical appliances. Rules for handling them.
4. Ways to prevent and overcome panic and panic in dangerous and emergency situations.
In the course of his life, a person is constantly exposed to hazards and risk. In his daily life, there are so-called possible or potential dangers.
Progress and social development of civilization bring not only a relative increase in welfare and standard of living, but at the same time lead to an increase in the impact of negative consequences on the person in the domestic sphere. The more complex the system that provides for human life becomes, the higher is the probability of the appearance of malfunctions in its operation.
Nowadays, a person is surrounded by many devices, devices, machines, without which it is impossible to imagine his existence both in the house, apartment, and outside them.
The process of urbanization of cities is irreversible and will continue. The domestic sphere is closely connected with elements of urban infrastructure: transport, cinemas, theaters, markets, water bodies, etc.
It is very difficult to make people observe safety rules in everyday life, outside the production sphere of activity. But it is there, in the domestic sphere, that the greatest number of accidents occur.
What can threaten a person in peacetime?
Being at home, moving around town, using various modes of transportation, resting in nature, we may find ourselves in danger, in an extreme situation.
Extreme situation is dangerous primarily because it usually occurs where no one expects it, and you are completely unprepared for it, and therefore helpless.
To avoid trouble and not to be confused in various emergency situations, you need to know the possible negative and dangerous factors, as well as the rules of conduct and procedures for dealing with various kinds of dangers.
What domestic situations are dangerous?
What should you do so that trouble does not catch you unawares?
How to act in extreme situations to save yourself and your loved ones?
1. Possible Negative and Dangerous Factors of Household Situations.
Household hazards are very diverse.
Possible negative and dangerous factors of domestic nature include situations that threaten human life and health in everyday activities.
We must learn to anticipate the dangers and act correctly in the face of realized negative and dangerous factors.
The most common negative, and often dangerous, factors of domestic nature can be considered to be:
– fires, fires;
– carbon monoxide or household gas poisoning;
– electric shock;
– domestic traumas, diseases;
– Falls from ladders, from height;
– flooding of premises;
– traffic accidents;
– destruction of walls and building structures, damage to property;
– quarrels and conflicts;
-Dangerous situations in crowded places – on the street, in public places, in transport
Causes of dangerous situations:
– failure to observe the rules of use of household appliances and household tools;
– Faulty electrical appliances which have been switched on or have been left unattended;
– Technical failures, leaks, damage to water and gas pipelines;
– violation of the rules for handling flammable substances and household chemicals;
– violation of the rules for keeping animals, behavior with them in the street;
– hurricanes, heavy rains, extreme cold, heat, earthquakes, floods;
– pranks with fire, explosive devices, poisonous substances;
– social and domestic problems, economic and political crises;
– drunkenness, drug addiction and unlawful behavior;
– malicious violation of discipline, safety rules, and rules for handling devices and mechanisms.
The best way to prevent domestic emergencies, to improve personal safety and the safety of others is to know the rules of safe behavior in everyday life, not to create extreme situations, and in case they occur (regardless of the reasons) to counteract them effectively, to be able to help yourself and others.
2. Rules of action to ensure personal safety in case of negative and dangerous factors of domestic character:
in places of mass gathering of people;
at road accidents;
at home, in the yard, in the street;
in a hike and in nature;
at water bodies;
In case of household poisonings.
Rules of action to ensure personal safety in places of mass gathering of people.
Places and zones of rest (parks, beaches, etc.), open stages, exhibition halls, stadiums, sports grounds, meetings, festive processions, all of them make an integral part of modern cities and by their designation are important factors of human activity. One way or another everyone can be in crowded places. In such places an unforeseen situation can occur (collapse, accident, fire, explosion, quarrel of fans, irrepressible desire of fans to break through to their idol on the stage, etc.).
All this should encourage a person, when visiting such places, to think seriously about the measures that would prevent possible negative consequences of being there. If a person wishes to take part in a rally, march, demonstration, it is necessary to find out whether there is permission from the official authorities to hold this event. In the absence of such permission, actions by law enforcement agencies aimed at dispersing people are not excluded. This will certainly lead to unrest, violence and arrests. The use of tear gas, water cannons, mounted units, dogs, rubber truncheons, shields and weapons is not uncommon.
There are numerous examples of holiday crowds turning into an uncontrollable force in an instant, ruthlessly sweeping away anything and everything in their path. Panic and fleeing crowds are their main striking factors. During panic and flight, people become a source of danger to each other, and sometimes this danger is fatal.
It is better, of course, not to become part of the crowd. It is both dangerous and not very honorable. But how to behave if it does happen?
Characteristics of panic:
– panic flight is always directed away from danger;
– the direction of flight in a panic is not random (the choice is to follow a familiar path or the one used by others);
– panic flight is asocial in character (the strongest ties may be broken: a mother may abandon her child, a husband may abandon his wife, etc.); people become an unexpected source of danger to each other;
– the panic-stricken person always believes that the situation is extremely dangerous (panic flight stops when the person thinks that he or she is out of the danger zone);
– the panic-stricken person is not thinking clearly, but his thoughts are not irrational (the problem is rather that he is not looking for alternative solutions).
How to survive in a crowd?
If you decide to participate in an event with a large number of people, try to follow the following rules:
– At the concert, the stadium, figure out in advance how you will leave (not necessarily the same way you came in).
– Do not take any animals, bulky things (bags, backpacks, carts);
– leave photo-video equipment, glass bottles at home;
– wear strict lightweight clothing without a hood, fasten all buttons, do not wear a tie, scarf, belt;
– lace up your shoes and tie the laces securely, do not wear high-heeled shoes;
– do not take sharp, stabbing, cutting objects, weapons;
– try not to pick up posters, banners, flags on a staff;
– remove symbols and insignia from your clothes, as they can cause a negative reaction from your opponents or police officers;
– have your ID card with you;
– try to stay away from police officers, as they are usually the targets of aggression of the crowd, which means – flying stones, bottles, sticks, possible provocations. No less dangerous and retaliatory actions.
– do not enter into negotiations and clashes with the police;
– constantly monitor the situation, the state of the crowd and your place, so that in time to leave the danger zone;
– stay away from the podium, the microphones, the stage, as it will be very difficult to retreat from here in case of a crush;
– think about options for escape through passageways and courtyards, alleys, adjacent streets;
– In case of an emergency, try to leave the place immediately;
– stay away from companies that are under the influence of alcohol or drugs, because near such groups conflicts easily arise and can lead to fights;
– when moving in a dense crowd it is dangerous to be near glass store windows, building walls, trees, fence nets, embankments, bridges, vehicles, narrow passages. Pressed against them by the crowd, you can get injured. Try to avoid the center and edges of the crowd. When you move, avoid objects that are stationary on your path: urns, poles, trees, fences, cordoned-off vehicles, corners of buildings. Do not cling to objects with your hands;
– do not try to walk against the movement of the crowd;
– being in a dense crowd, keep your hands, bent at the elbows, pressed to the chest, clasp them in a lock. This way you can protect yourself from being squeezed and make breathing easier;
– if you stumble and fall, try with all your might to stay on your feet, at least catching hold of the people ahead of you;
– try to stay away from tall and overweight people, from drunken, aggressive people, from people with baby carriages, large objects in their hands, with backpacks, animals, from the disabled;
– in case of tear gas, cover your nose and mouth with a wet handkerchief; if the gas got into your eyes they should be rinsed with water or try to blink frequently so that your tears wash away the caustic substance. In any case, you should leave the place where the gas was administered;
– if the crowd is dense, but motionless, you can try to get out of it, using psychosocial techniques. For example, pretend to be sick, drunk, crazy, pretend to be sick, etc.
– Throw away your bag, umbrella, etc. If you have something fallen (anything), in any case, do not try to pick up – life is more expensive;
The main vital task in a crowd is not to fall.
If you fall, you must protect your head with your hands and be sure to get up. It is extremely difficult to stand up in the crowd, but if you fail to rise, the crowd will trample you in cold blood.
There are two ways to get up:
– pull your legs up quickly, regroup, stand up with a jerk;
– to rest one leg on the ground, to straighten up sharply, using the inertia of the crowd’s movement;
– Standing up, do not pay attention to anything, your main task is to get up and go further. Never count on compassion or help from people in the crowd. Moral standards do not exist here.
It is not uncommon to use banners, pennants, banners in the crowd, which pose an additional danger: they can be dropped and hit people with them, they can be tripped over if these objects fall to the ground. To prevent accidents, you should stay away from people with pennants, flags, banners. If they happen to be on the ground – step over them.
A great threat to health and life is the presence of machinery (car, tank) in the crowd, as people can be crushed by them or suffocate from the exhaust gases.
do not stand near trash cans, urns, baby carriages, or ownerless suitcases – these are often the places where explosives are planted by forces seeking to destabilize the rally;
do not stand near the stage or the place where the speakers are speaking from – these places are under the scrutiny of the police and militant elements, and in case of crush, turmoil it is more difficult to retreat from these positions;
Film and photo equipment attracts the attention of extremist elements. In the best case they will break your equipment, in the worst case you yourself will suffer;
If the police start an operation to disperse the crowd – do not lose your calm and self-control. If you begin to flee, you may be mistaken for one of the instigators. In the turmoil you cannot prove anything to anybody. So stay calm, don’t shout, don’t make movements which can be perceived as aggressive. With all your appearance express peacefulness – it will be the best guarantee that the police officers will not touch you when they disperse.
Rules of action for personal safety on public transport
In everyday life, when on the street or on public transport you should always remember and follow the rules of the road and personal safety.
Move only on sidewalks or footpaths, keeping on the right side, and where they are not available – on the roadside or the edge of the roadway, facing the traffic;
cross the road only by crosswalks, and if there are none – by the shortest route in the section where the carriageway is clearly visible in both directions, making sure that there are no cars in the vicinity;
When using ground transportation, avoid deserted stops at night. When waiting for a bus or streetcar, it is advisable to stand in a well-lit place, close to other people. When vehicles arrive, do not try to stand in the front row of an impatient crowd.
If the bus runs at long intervals, remember the schedule so you do not stand for too long.
What rules should you follow in public transport?
Do not fall asleep while driving, it is dangerous not so much to oversleep your stop, as to be injured when suddenly braking or turning. Get in and out of the vehicle only when it has come to a complete stop.
When boarding, go to the middle part of the vehicle, do not stop at the door, and do not obstruct the path of others. Do not use the vehicle doors as a support, and do not obstruct the opening and closing of the doors;
while driving, keep yourself in a stable position by holding onto the handrails, seat backs, or seat belts;
When standing, place your fulcrums (two feet, hand on the handrail) so that their vertical projection onto the floor forms a large area triangle. Choose in advance where you will fall in case of collision, and also who and what will fall on you
Do not distract the driver from driving;
If you are in a bus, streetcar or trolley bus, try not to fall asleep while driving and do not look out of the window for a long time if your bag or suitcase is on the floor.
It is better to sit with your face to the traffic side: this way you can watch the situation on the road, and there is less risk of getting injured in case of emergency braking or collision.
The middle of the salon is the safest place.
It is safer to sit on the right side than on the left: further away from oncoming traffic.
Do not lean against the doors, avoid riding on the steps and in the aisle if possible.
– Do not stand near doors, as this is where you are most likely to be robbed by someone on their way out.
– If there are no seats available, stand in the center aisle instead of the exit, because crooks can snatch your purse, “briefcase” or package and immediately jump out and get lost in the crowd.
– An open bag always draws the eye of the kidnapper, so try to keep your belongings well packed and closed. If you put your bag or bag on the floor, don’t look out the window or around, and hold your belongings with your feet.
– Never keep your passport or money in your back pants pocket. The safest place to keep your documents is in your inside jacket pocket, but don’t forget that pickpockets can easily steal them from there as well in a crowd and commotion.
Avoid empty buses and streetcars, trolley buses. If you still have to go late, it is better to sit near the driver, and not at the window, and closer to the aisle, so that you were uncomfortable to sit down. If, despite this, a suspicious stranger wants to sit next to you, let him pass to the window or sit down.
Women are advised to sit next to other women. If an obviously pushy passenger enters the salon, turn away from him or her and do not meet his or her eyes.
After getting out of the salon, it is better to wait until the vehicle leaves, and then cross the street. Staying bus or trolley bus go around from behind, streetcar – from the front. It is more practical to sit on the right side of the vehicle: it is safer in terms of potential collision with oncoming cars.
When taking a train, especially in the evening, it is better to sit in the carriage, where there are traditionally many passengers. If you are afraid of hooligans – sit closer to the remote police call or at the extreme case to the stop tap (it is in the vestibule). However, standing in the vestibule and aisles, smoking – is not recommended.
If in the car, where you have already entered, found a drunken company, quietly go to the next car in the course of movement. Do not answer defiant remarks, do not meet the swaggering passengers with eyes. Be prepared to fight back, but do not show fear or irritation, be outwardly indifferent.
If a person or a group that threatened you came out with you, immediately ask the cashier or the officer on duty at the station, the police officer. Ask to contact the police, tell about the description of the threatening person, do not leave the station until you are sure that you are not threatened. If possible, call (or ask a station attendant to call) to be picked up.
What should I do if there is a fire in the cabin?
First, immediately inform the driver.
Secondly, open the doors with the emergency door release button. If this fails and the cabin is filled with smoke, break the side windows (holding the handrail, strike both feet in the corner of the window) or open them as emergency exits according to the instructions (e.g., with a special built-in cord).
Third, if possible, extinguish the fire yourself with a fire extinguisher located in the cabin. Fight panic by primarily saving children and those who cannot take care of themselves. Protect your mouth and nose with a handkerchief, scarf, sleeve, jacket halves from the smoke: the first danger in such a fire is poisonous gases from plastic; sometimes a few breaths are enough to lose consciousness. Having got out of the burning car, immediately begin to help others.
On Rail Transport
Railroad transportation is an important means of transporting passengers. However, accidents and disasters related to derailments, fires, damage to power lines and other accidents involving danger to the lives of others are also possible on it.
To reduce the risk when using rail transport, the following basic rules and safety measures should be observed:
– cross railroad tracks only in designated areas;
– when crossing railway tracks, make sure that there are no moving vehicles, and in no case do not go under the cars and do not climb over the automatic coupling;
– enter and exit the wagon only from the platform or boarding platform, and when the train has stopped;
– do not open exterior doors of vestibules while the train is running and do not stand on the steps and crossing platforms
– do not lean out of the windows;
– do not use open fire and household appliances (kettles, irons, electric stoves) in the cars;
– do not carry inflammable and explosive substances in the cars.
To ensure fire safety of passengers in trains are installed fire alarm systems, emergency exits, equipped with fire stands.
Flight safety has been a major problem since the appearance of aviation. At present there are on the average 60 air accidents a year, of which over half are fatal accidents involving all passengers and crew. At the same time the risk of death in an aircraft accident is ten times lower than the risk of being hit by a car (in the world every year about 170 thousand people die on the roads, while in air crashes – less than 2 thousand).
Flying safety depends primarily on the reliability of aircraft and professional crews, but you, when using air transport, should follow certain rules.
– if you have a choice, sit in a seat that is located near the exit and, if possible, closer to the middle or the tail of the aircraft;
– ask where the exits are located (main and emergency exits) and how they open;
– when taking off and landing the aircraft, ensure that your seat belt is fastened securely.
Personal safety precautions for road accidents
A road accident is a situation that occurs during the movement of motor vehicles and results in the death or injury of people, or damage to vehicles, cargo, roads, road and other structures, or other property.
Road accidents are divided into the following types: collision, overturning, collision with a standing vehicle, collision with an obstacle, collision with a pedestrian, collision with a cyclist, collision with animal and other road traffic accidents.
The driver and passengers are most frequently struck in the head, limbs and chest by door structures, steering column, front body panels and windshields. Additional injuries are caused by objects inside the car. Pedestrians are injured most of all by bumpers, fenders, headlights and hood. About 60% of all injuries are the result of secondary impact on the roadway, curbstone.
For personal safety and passenger safety, drivers are prohibited from:
– operate a vehicle while intoxicated, under the influence of medications that impair reaction and attention, in a sick or fatigued state;
– to transfer driving the vehicle to the persons who are in a condition of intoxication, under the influence of medicines, in a sick or tired state, as well as to the persons who have no driving license for the right to operate a vehicle of this category or in case of its withdrawal in the prescribed manner – a temporary permission, except in cases of learning to drive;
– use a telephone that is not equipped with a technical device that allows you to negotiate without using your hands while driving.
Pedestrians are prohibited for personal safety reasons:
– Crossing the carriageway in an inappropriate place;
– Unexpectedly stepping onto the carriageway from behind a vehicle, tree, structure or other type of obstacle;
– Disobeying traffic control signals;
– Movement on the carriageway in the presence of the sidewalk;
– Playing on the carriageway.
Pedestrians must move on sidewalks or walkways, or if there are none, on the shoulders. If there are no sidewalks, walkways or curbs, or if it is impossible to move on them, pedestrians can move on a bicycle lane or walk in a single row on the edge of the carriageway.
When moving along the edge of the carriageway, pedestrians must walk towards the movement of vehicles.
Movement of organized pedestrian columns on the carriageway is allowed only in the direction of movement of vehicles on the right side of no more than four people in a row. Accompanying persons with red flags must be in front and behind the column on the left side, and in darkness and in poor visibility – with lights turned on: in the front – white, behind – red.
Groups of children may only be led along sidewalks and pedestrian paths, and if there are none – along the roadsides, but only during daylight hours and only when accompanied by adults.
In places where traffic is regulated, pedestrians must obey the signals of the traffic controller or traffic lights.
At unregulated crosswalks, pedestrians may enter the carriageway after making sure that it will be safe for them to cross. When crossing the carriageway outside the crosswalk, pedestrians must not interfere with the movement of vehicles.
Once on the carriageway, pedestrians should not delay or stop unless it is necessary to ensure traffic safety. Pedestrians who have not managed to finish crossing must stop at the line separating the traffic flows of opposite directions. They have to make sure that they can continue crossing in a safe way and must obey the traffic lights.
When approaching vehicles with blue flashing light and a special sound signal, pedestrians must refrain from crossing the carriageway, and those who are on it must give way to such vehicles and immediately vacate the roadway.
Waiting for a fixed-route vehicle and a cab is permitted only on raised landing places above the carriageway, and if there are none – on the sidewalk or the roadside. At places of stops of fixed-route vehicles which are not equipped with raised platforms it is permitted to go out onto the carriageway to get into the vehicle only after it has stopped. After disembarkation it is necessary, without delay, to free the carriageway.
If you are involved in an accident, it is useful to adhere to the following rules of conduct:
– passengers should quickly regroup, lie down on the floor or on the seat, protect their head with their hands, cover children with their bodies, and tense their muscles;
– do not leave the vehicle while driving because of the high probability of injury or death;
– try to get out of the car by yourself and help all the victims to leave the car. If it is impossible to do so calm down, do not make abrupt movements, adopt an optimum posture, call for help and wait for rescuers;
– leave the car through doors, windows, hatches. If you are hampered by the glass, you need to break them. After the accident try to assess the situation, the position of the vehicle, the presence of real danger factors;
– Move to a safe distance from the place of the accident;
– at occurrence of fire try to extinguish fire by improvised means or to call experts;
– if the car falls into water, try to leave it as quickly as possible, before it is completely submerged in water.
Immediately after an accident, quickly get out of the car through the door or windows – emergency exits, since there is a high probability of fire. Leave the wagon only on the field side of the track, taking your documents, money, clothes, or blankets with you. If there is a fire in the car, close the windows so that the wind does not blow the flames out, and get away from the fire in the front carriages, or if this is not possible, in the end of the train, closing the doors tightly behind you. Before you go out into the corridor, prepare protection for breathing: hats, scarves, pieces of cloth moistened with water. Remember that in case of fire, the wall lining material of the rail cars emits toxic gas, dangerous to life.
In case of an accident on the aircraft
In case of decompression, put on an oxygen mask immediately. Do not try to help anyone before this, even if it is your child. You will not have time to help yourself and you will both be without oxygen. Immediately after putting on your masks, fasten your seat belts and prepare for a rapid descent.
In an airplane fire, the greatest danger is smoke, so breathe through cotton or woolen clothing, dampened with water if possible. When making your way to the exit, crouch down or crawl on all fours, as there is less smoke in the lower part of the cabin. Protect exposed body parts from fire with clothing or plaids. After landing and stopping the plane immediately head for the nearest exit, as there is a high probability of an explosion. If the aisle is blocked, climb through the seats, lowering their backs. After leaving the aircraft, move as far away from the aircraft as possible and lie down on the ground with your hands on your head – an explosion may occur.
In case of a hard landing, adjust your seat belt carefully, check that there are no heavy suitcases over your head. Empty your pockets of sharp objects, bend over and clasp your hands tightly together under your knees. Rest your head on your knees or bend it as low as possible. Rest your feet on the floor, pushing them as far forward as possible, but not under the front seat. At the moment of impact, tense up as much as possible and prepare yourself for a considerable overload. Under no circumstances leave your seat until the aircraft has come to a complete stop.
In a Boating Accident
Remember that only the captain makes the decision to abandon ship. Wear plenty of clothing and a life jacket before getting into a lifeboat or life raft. If possible, bring blankets, extra clothing, drinking water, and food. If you have to jump from the ship into the water, preferably from a height of no more than 5 meters, covering your mouth and nose with one hand, the other holding tightly to the vest. Swim only to the life preserver. While in the water blow a whistle or raise your hand, in the absence of rescue equipment, move as little as possible to keep warm – in a lifejacket, with your hands around the sides of the chest and lift your hips higher, so that the water washes less around the groin area. If you do not have a life jacket, look for some floating object with your eyes and grasp it to stay afloat more easily until the lifeguards arrive, resting on your back.
Rules of action for personal safety in the city
The modern city is filled with sources of potential danger to humans. Evening visits to cinemas, concerts force citizens to return home at a late hour. In the city, large crowds of people dull a person’s attention and make it easier for an intruder to carry out his criminal intentions.
To avoid danger, to avoid stress in this or that situation it is necessary to know some rules.
On the street
– Do not wear clothes, overly emphasizing the figure, as well as expensive jewelry, if you have to go home late at night. If you wear jewelry, try not to let it be conspicuous, you can remove it. It is advisable to have someone meet you or take a cab. Ask the driver to wait until you enter the house.
– If possible, refrain from walking at night. If there is an urgent need to leave the house at night, try not to walk in crowded and poorly lit places, deserted squares. Be careful on the streets, don’t go close to the walls of houses – there may be danger lurking in alleyways and around corners. Stay close to the edge of the sidewalk. It is better to walk down the street towards the traffic – so you will not be suddenly attacked by a car. It is undesirable to walk along the industrial buildings – there is little chance of someone’s help. Do not use poorly lit, deserted underpasses.
– Do not “vote” on the road and do not accept invitations from drivers. If you are threatened from the braked nearby car, shout loudly and run in the direction opposite to movement of the car.
– Beware of any gambling (even at chess you can lose a fortune) or betting. If a gypsy woman approaches you and offers to “tell the whole truth” – this is a fraud. She will certainly ask you to put on the palm of your hand some gold thing or money. If you do, you can say goodbye to the jewelry and money. On the street beware of all people offering any deals, even profitable at first glance.
– Being on the street in the evening and at night, do not use a Walkman, otherwise you will not hear the footsteps of the approaching potential criminal.
– If it seemed that someone is following you, change the pace of your walk, move several times to the opposite side of the street. If your suspicions are confirmed, run to where there may be people or to a lighted place. If the pursuit continues, call for help. If there is a whistle, don’t stop running, whistle. If you do get caught near a house, not only call for help, but yell: “Fire!”, “Burn!”. In case of a line of danger, break the window of the lower floor. This way you will find a much quicker response among the occupants.
– Always proceed from the specific circumstances. In case of need do not hesitate to ask strangers for help: in stores – these are salesmen, managers, cashiers; in pharmacies – pharmacists; in banks – guards, bank clerks, etc.
In public places
– When leaving home remember the amount of money you have. Do not count your money in crowded places.
– Be discreet and attentive, do not flirt with strangers, try not to draw attention to yourself.
– In a cafe, restaurant, sit away from the exit, it is better to sit with your back to the wall, do not sit in poorly-lit places. Tables located near the counter are the safest.
– Be careful of people sitting at your table, don’t get involved in disagreements or quarrels, don’t try to calm or reconcile quarreling people.
– If you need to change currency, do it only in the specially designated places. On the street, markets, it is very likely that you will be slipped counterfeit money.
– Do not buy from hands or from people who arouse suspicion. If the goods are sold well below their value – it’s either a stolen item, or a fake.
– Do not tell outsiders what you want to buy. Do not agree to the seller’s offer to go to the back, ask to take the goods out.
– Before accepting any offer, analyze how it can turn out for you, trust your gut feeling, and if you get in trouble, ask for help.
– If you have a lot of bags and bags of purchases – take a cab. You’ll pay some extra money, but in safety and security you will bring things home.
– Try not to visit a public toilet alone (this “strange” rule has its explanation: public toilets are unfortunately not a safe place, and it is well played in many movies – robbery, sexual assault or harassment).
In the yard and in the house
We need to know who lives nearby and what they do.
If you are careful, you know almost all the cars and their owners in your yard. There are new people, a new (unfamiliar) car has been standing close to the house for a long time, the lock has been ripped off the door leading to the basement – this should alert you.
The street and area around the house should be well lit.
Control the lighting, the serviceability of the code, intercom. Buy a whistle, and if possible, a pocket siren. Have a bunch of keys and an umbrella ready when you enter or leave your front door in the evening.
Using the elevator
We, the residents of high-rise cities, cannot imagine ourselves without elevators.
Here are a few basic rules for using the elevator.
If you enter the elevator with an infant in a stroller, it is better to take the baby in your arms. And in no case bring the stroller in front of you. Elevator doors can close unexpectedly. By the way, a warning to young mothers – do not let the babies who have already learned to walk into the elevator in front of you. Doors will slam and the child will be in a completely defenseless state.
In all houses on the wall of the first floor is an instruction – do not be lazy, read what it says. Instructions are memorized quickly and come to mind at the right time.
And now pay attention: the most frequent mistake made by passengers – an attempt to get out of the suddenly stopped elevator yourself. First, do not panic and immediately call the dispatcher. In any case, you are not the only one using elevators in the house. So people are sure to notice the breakdown and will come to your aid. Do not try to open the door and make a jump, even if you think you are strong and agile. There are many known cases when such attempts ended in falling down the shaft.
The only exception to getting out of the elevator as soon as possible is a house fire or other emergency.
Do not enter an elevator with a stranger who arouses your suspicion
In the elevator, do not turn your back to a stranger, but watch him or her unobtrusively. Shout, make noise, bang on the side of the cabin if you are attacked. Defend yourself in any way you can. Prevent your attacker from trying to stop the elevator between floors, do not let him come near the control panel, always press the button of the nearest floor with your back.
Only enter the elevator when you are sure there are no strangers in the car. Have with you an umbrella, a whistle, a siren, which can serve as a weapon of protection.
Rules of actions for personal safety in the camping and in the nature
Unexpectedly find yourself in a difficult situation alone with nature, you need to assess the situation and decide on the planned action. A favorable outcome of autonomous existence depends on many reasons: the physical and psychological state, food supplies, the effectiveness of equipment.
The primary concerns include: first aid or self-help, salvage of necessary equipment, property, and food supplies. Subsequently, distress signals are sent or radio communication is established, temporary shelter is prepared, food and water is obtained, orientation, search for routes and access to the populated area is made.
Chances of survival depend on the following factors: desire to survive, ability to apply knowledge, confidence in knowing the terrain, judgment and initiative, discipline, ability to analyze and consider one’s mistakes.
Surviving means solving three crucial tasks:
– to be able to shelter from the cold, heat and wind, to protect the body from overcooling or overheating depending on the terrain and weather conditions.
– To establish the daily norm of consumption of water at once, and the reserve stock should be left for emergencies. You should also take measures to find water sources.
– Make a food ration and make sure there is enough water for cooking.
When camping and in nature it is useful to observe safety rules, so that a pleasant walk or hike did not turn into a serious problem of survival in unfamiliar conditions.
If you go out of town even for one day, take with you a map or map of the area, a compass, matches, and a knife. It is useful to have a small emergency supply of food: a bar of chocolate, raisins, nuts, bacon.
If you’re going camping for several days, remember the rules of setting up a tent.
Do not pitch your tent under the overhanging branches of trees, close to inflammable objects and plants, on avalanche-, rockfall-, mudflow-prone places, near rocks, ledges, snow bridges and canopies, near dry, In close proximity to water, on a sandbank, a spit, in a dried-up river bed, in dense bush, in reeds, reeds, under steep earth banks, on the edge of a bluff or high bank, under electricity transmitting lines.
The back wall of the tent should be placed in the direction of the prevailing winds. The entrance to the tent must not be located in the direction of the ravine, pit, precipice, water, which exclude injury in case the tourist leaves the tent at night.
The presence of an axe in a tourist group is a prerequisite hike. With his help a wide range of different works: getting firewood, setting up the tent, clearing the way, cutting through the ice, hammering nails, opening metal cans of food. In order that an axe does not cause injury when using it, it must not come off the axe, it must be serviceable and sharp. The axe must not be carried by his belt, throw it to another participant of a campaign, as it can lead to a very serious injury.
Going on a hike, think about what can be useful. You should aim for a minimum number of items with a maximum number of uses I recommend taking:
1. A knife, preferably with a fixed blade.
2. Matches rubbed with paraffin.
3. Candle (lighting, kindling, heating).
5. Needle and thread.
6. Fishing kit.
Ensuring safety while camping
– Put documents and foodstuffs in waterproof bags and bags. Bulk food is better stored in lightweight plastic bottles with a label;
– pack your backpack: at the very bottom put utensils and packaged food, soft things (sleeping bag, spare clothes, survival gear) stacked to the back. Each backpack should have a self-contained living kit. First aid kit (bandages, anti-burn medications, the most necessary medicines) and flashlight are better packed on the outside of the backpack, so they can be quickly reached, as well as a strong rope to fasten things to the boat. It is necessary to close the backpack carefully to prevent water from getting into it;
– having fully assembled the backpack, attach a jacket to the top of it.
– when preparing a place to rest cover the place for the fire, do not choose under the crowns of trees to avoid the emergence of fire.
– take water for drinking and cooking from proven sources in populated areas.
In summer in the forest, it is advisable to use a thin and thick jacket with a hood. All parts of the jacket should fit tightly to the body, otherwise you can catch fleas, ticks. Footwear depends a lot on the person’s inclinations and the route. Do not take new ones, so as not to rub your feet.
Orientation on terrain
If you get lost in the woods:
You must stop immediately and sit down. And don’t take another step without thinking. Determine how long you were moving, try to remember your path. If there are no landmarks, you should try to climb to the highest tree – a view from a height helps and not in such problems. If this does not work, try to remember familiar landmarks. Preferably long and noisy: railroad, navigable river, highway. Look around, listen to sounds. Go out to people help sounds – work a tractor, a barking dog (it is necessary to go out on sounds, noise). Remember the zone of hearing, km:
train noise – 10 km;
the sound of a train – 10 km;
a car horn – 2-3 km;
Barking dog, neighing horse – 2-3 km;
shout of a man – 1-1,5 km;
noise of a lorry – 0.5-1.5 km.
The smell of smoke helps: here you have to move against the wind. Look for a trail, a road, a stream, a river – they lead to a shelter. When you find a trail, a road, move in the direction of the tracks, when you get to the river, creek, move downstream. A stream will lead you to a river, a river – to people.
If you don’t have a compass, you should find out the directions by the sun or local signs, at night by the stars and the moon.
Orienteering without a compass.
In the woods, it is necessary to remember which side the sun was on (if it has been 5 hours or more, the correction for time will be quite significant). For those who are little in the woods, especially if it is unfamiliar, it is desirable to know exactly the sides of the horizon.
1.1 Push a stick vertically into the ground. Mark the end of the shadow from the stick. Wait 20 minutes and again mark the position of the end of the shadow. Connect both marks with a line, it will go from the West to the East.
1.2 Point the hour hand toward the sun. The bisector of the angle formed by it and the 12 o’clock marker will be the North-South direction, with South being closer to the sun
2. Stars. I think everyone can find the big bear. Extend the far side of the bucket wall from the handle up about 6 times. There will only be 1 bright star there-the polar star (pointing North).
3. the Moon. Imagine a line connecting the horns and extend it to the horizon, there will be South.
At midnight (if you have a local time clock with you), you can tell the side of the world by the moon. In its first quarter (“rising”) the Moon is in the west at that hour, in the full moon at that hour it is in the south, in the last quarter (the sickle of the month looks like the letter C – in the east
4. Living organisms. Remember that mosses and lichens tend to the North, everything else to the South (you can orient yourself by stumps, anthills, flowers…).
Or go out into a clearing or any open area. Use natural landmarks. The northern side of a tree is covered with lichens and mosses, while the southern side always has more branches and denser foliage. The anthill is always located on the south side of trees. The annual rings on the stump of a freestanding tree are not evenly arranged: they are usually thicker on the southern side.
If you have been wandering for several days and guess that they have started looking for you, you should take care to facilitate your search. The easiest way to signal rescuers is with a campfire (during the day try to make it smoke more, at night it should burn brighter). Good, if you find an old tire (our native nature is heavily littered), the smoke from it can be seen for a few miles. A CB station, a mirror (solar bunnies), etc. can be a very good service.
If you fall behind the group.
Don’t go off the trail. Stop at a fork in the trail and wait for them to come for you.
If the weather gets worse, make a fire and build a temporary shelter.
The safest rule is to look at the map, or at least a hand-drawn map, before entering the forest. Remember the landmarks. It will take no more than five minutes, and you will feel much more confident in the woods (of course, even better to redraw the plan and take it with you). It is very useful to orient yourself on the ground from time to time – look at it as a training of attention.
During movement it is necessary to check yourself more often: to remember landmarks, to leave notches. Without visual landmarks man in the woods starts to circle, as the right foot always makes a step slightly wider than the left. To avoid this, you must mentally draw a straight line between two landmarks in front. Having reached one (e.g. a tree), immediately choose the next landmark. A straight line will thus be continuous.
Getting food and drinking water
Human survival requires, above all, water and food.
Food should be distributed as follows: 2/3 of the total food for the first half of the journey, 1/3 for the second half;
avoid eating foods containing a lot of starch, because they cause increased thirst;
any food should be carefully chewed.
Water can be found by digging into groundwater of rain or melted snow, collecting dew, squeezing sap from plants, or by condensing.
Drinking water should be consumed sparingly by
drink in small portions (in extreme heat you need to wet your lips and mouth);
Do not drink often;
To keep moisture in the body in hot weather drinking water can be slightly salted.
Dirty water, in order not to catch infectious diseases, should be boiled for at least 10 minutes if possible. When boiling you can add charcoal from a fire to neutralize the unpleasant smell of water.
If you cannot boil the water, it should be filtered through a layer of sand and ash (by filling clothes or a pierced jar with them). Then it should be allowed to stand for 12 hours and add a weak solution of manganese or iodine, before using the water again stand for about 45 minutes.
Of foods of plant origin, you should choose those that are fed to birds or animals.
So, let’s assume that you have used up your food supply and have no recourse.
Finding and cooking food.
Plants that can be eaten:
– Plantain (young leaves raw, older leaves in soups)
– dandelion (young leaves – raw, hold in cold water to remove bitterness; roots can replace potatoes and coffee)
– nettles (can be eaten raw, scalded with boiling water to remove formic acid; not bad when boiled, about 5 minutes, as well)
– red clover (raw or boiled)
– sorrel (raw or boiled; do not abuse it)
– buckthorn (berries)
– hawthorn (berries – do not abuse them)
– mountain ash (berries raw, boiled, can be used instead of tea)
– blackberry (berries)
– rose hips (berries raw, instead of tea)
– blueberries (berries)
– apple tree (fruits would be good cut into slices and dried for storage)
– strawberry (berries)
– bird cherry (berries)
In winter you will have to eat the buds, seeds and nuts of trees such as linden trees. You can also find berries left over from the fall.
General tips: how to check for edibility of plants.
Plants with yellow flowers and/or milky sap, except dandelion, are usually poisonous. Avoid plants with a pungent, bitter, stinging taste.
Do not eat spoiled or damaged parts of plants. If one part of a plant is edible, don’t assume that all others are as well. Even edible and tasty plants should not be eaten many of the same kind at once, since they may contain medicinal substances, the over-consumption of which is harmful. Test for edibility only those plants that are easy to find in the right amount, and only 1 species and on 1 person at a time.
1. Crush the plant and rub the juice on the inside of your wrist. Wait 15 minutes, if there are no blisters, itching or burning, then the plant does not contain any poison acting on the skin.
2. Hold a piece of the plant in your mouth for about 5 minutes, if there is no bad feeling, chew it. Wait to see if there is any bitterness, burning or soapy taste, if not, swallow the juice, spit out the rest, wait 8 hours.
3. if there are no unpleasant effects (nausea, abdominal pain, dizziness, drowsiness), eat about a teaspoon of the plant and wait another 8 hours to see if there are any such effects.
4. If all is well, eat a handful of this plant, if within a day the above consequences will not be, the plant is not poisonous.
You need to be even more careful when it comes to mushrooms. Do not
Eat unfamiliar mushrooms. Before roasting mushrooms you should boil them and drain the water, as some of them can be cleared of poison in this way. Do not eat young (when not yet all signs of the species are visible) and old mushrooms. Do not pick mushrooms in extreme heat and drought (then you can be severely poisoned even with boletus). Do not give mushrooms to children, even what is absolutely safe for adults can cause fatal liver damage.
Animal products are more valuable than plant foods, but they are much harder to obtain.
Fish are best caught after sunset and at dusk, and at night when the moon is full or dim, as at that time they are more actively looking for food. Fish rising to the surface, as well as the presence of a large number of fry near the shore is a good sign for successful fishing.
Improvised fishing tackles are made from improvised means. Hooks – from pins, pins, penknife or hard wood. Sturdy fishing line is woven from the fiber of tree bark or clothing. A fishing rod is made from a reed or a long stick.
Improvised nets can be made in the following way: choose a young tree and make from it a semblance of a frame; sew or tie the material to it so that there were no gaps. Instead of material you can use a shirt, T-shirt or jacket, with the sleeves of clothing should be tied so that through them would not slip fish and water flowed freely; led these improvised nets against the current around the rocks, periodically checking whether there is no fish.
The following animals are not usually eaten, but are nevertheless edible:
1) frogs, toads (but their mucus can be poisonous);
3) snails, shells.
If you don’t have any cooking utensils, the easiest ways to roast would probably be these:
1) coat meat or fish with clay and bake on coals.
2) dig a hole, put fuel in it; put sticks on top of the edges of the hole, and stones on top of them, all in several layers; when burned, you can roast on the stones.
Equipment of shelters from bad weather and organization of the night shelter
The basic rules for organizing an overnight stay and equipping weather shelters are as follows:
– prepare everything in advance (start at least two hours before dark) and choose the most comfortable and safe places;
– when organizing overnight shelter should choose a flat area. Particular attention should be paid to the arrangement of the bedding. The floor can be insulated with branches of trees and bushes, lapnik, clumps of grass and things. In case of strong winds the shelter should be additionally strengthened. The entrance to the shelter should be oriented towards the windless side;
– in the rain, the shelter should be covered with a waterproof film and surrounded by a drainage ditch around the perimeter.
The main types of shelters in the forest are huts made of tree branches and lapnik, and the simplest shelter from bad weather is a windproof wall (canopy).
The main types of simple winter shelters are:
– A snow trench (a slot 1 to 1.5 m deep in the snow). The top of the trench is covered with a roof of improvised materials (lapnik, tree branches, skis, snow, etc.);
– a snow pit (a vertical well with a niche at the bottom and a roof). A snow pit can be built in dense, lying snow;
– windbreak. The snow at your chosen place should be tamped (tamped down) and used to make windproof walls around the shelter.
To prevent frostbite and hypothermia it is necessary:
– avoid getting your clothes wet;
– periodically knead, rub the swollen parts of the body;
– Wiggle your fingers, toes, and feet, tense and relax your body muscles;
– warm the hands on the chest under the clothes or under the arms;
– periodically perform physical exercises (squatting, waving arms and legs, rotating the body, tilting the body, jumping).
First of all, you should warm the areas of the body where there are large blood vessels and close to vital internal organs: chest, back, neck, groin.
Improvised warmers can be made by using large stones heated on a fire or by filling plastic bottles with hot water.
Starting a fire
Fire increases human safety in the outdoors. Fire is essential for heating, cooking, drying clothes, signaling one’s location and danger, and purifying water by boiling it and protecting it from wild animals.
With matches you can make a fire under any conditions and in any weather. To survive in nature, you need to be able to keep the flame of a match alive in strong winds and make a fire.
If you organize a campfire, do it in an open clearing away from the roots of nearby trees. Cut the sod vertically to the ground around the circumference of the future campfire boundary. The turf can be up to eight centimeters thick. Cut the resulting inner part of the turf into eight equal parts in diameter. Carefully cut each part and lay it upside down on the perimeter of the fire pit.
What rules do I need to know to make a good fire?
When building a campfire, you should keep in mind that:
– a small fire is easier to make and control than a large fire;
– several small fires made in cold weather around you will give more heat than one large fire;
– when making a fire on wet ground or snow, you should build a platform of logs or stones;
– with the help of a shield (wind breaker) or deflector you can protect the fire from the wind or direct the heat in the necessary direction.
– As fuel it is better to use:
– dried trees and branches. In wet weather, dry fuel can be found under the trunks of fallen trees;
– in areas with sparse vegetation – dry grasses, droppings of animals, animal fat, and sometimes even coal or peat, which can be on the surface of the soil;
– if there is wreckage of a vehicle (bus, car, etc.) nearby, you can use seat coverings or a mixture of gasoline and oil (petroleum) as fuel.
– Know that even in the rain the resin of spruce cones and dry birch bark will quickly catch fire because they contain resinous substances that burn very well.
Making a fire without matches
In order to make a fire without matches, you can use various improvised materials. Such materials can be a convex lens, a solid piece of stone and a knife blade or some small bar of steel, as well as dry solid wood.
The two most common ways to start a fire are by using the sun and the lens and by using a flint and a flintstick.
A convex lens can be used to focus the sun’s rays on a flammable substance. The flint can be a hard piece of stone and the flint can be a steel knife blade or some small bar of steel. To strike a spark you must:
– strike the blade of the knife against the stone so as to produce sparks. The stone should be held as close as possible to the pipe (a flammable substance);
– The sparks should hit the center of the pipe and when it starts to smoke, blow a little on the flame. You can add some fuel to the pipe or move the pipe to the fuel;
– if you cannot make a spark with the first stone, you should use the others and try until you succeed.
Rules of action for personal safety on water bodies
The Water Rescue Society has been teaching citizens the simplest rules of safe conduct since its inception, since 1872:
Violations of these rules are the leading cause of water fatalities. According to statistics, more than 40% of adults drown while under the influence of alcohol and drugs. However, there is another reason: first self-confidence, and then fear. But it is known that both are often saved by knowledge.
The main causes of death are:
– Fear is the leading cause of drowning. Emerging as a result of emotional stress, the feeling of fear causes deep violations of psychomotor and other body functions. Very often it is due to the imaginary danger and lack of confidence of the person swimming when there is no real threat of drowning.
– Water temperature; Doctors recommend swimming only if the air temperature is at least 20 C. The minimum water temperature is 18 C. You may not feel the water is too warm, but your body is severely overcooled.
– unknown body of water;
– high speed of water flow;
– presence of whirlpools in the body of water;
– inability to swim;
– possibility of collision with floating vehicles and semi-submerged objects;
– violation of rules for the use of boats and other watercraft.
– physical overexertion;
– painful condition;
– swimming in a state of alcohol intoxication;
– violation of cardiovascular activity when diving to a depth (1.5-2 m) as a result of compression or displacement of the abdominal cavity organs by increasing hydrostatic pressure;
– prior hyperventilation when diving without a scuba diver to great depths;
– craniocerebral injuries, spinal fractures as a result of hitting the bottom of the reservoir or a sunken object.
There are also safety rules for those who choose to go boating.
Under the age of 16, you may only go boating under the supervision of an adult.
Before getting on a boat, you must check if it is in good condition, if there are no leaks, if the oars are in order.
Each person must have life saving equipment, a scoop to scoop out the water and a long rope or chain for mooring.
When using a boat (catamaran, pedal boat) it is prohibited:
– sail far from the shore;
– Standing up, crossing and rocking in a boat;
– Dive from a boat;
– swim close to passing ships and boats – the boat may be overturned by a wave;
– never go on the boat in places of public bathing
– climb into the boat over the side.
Rules of conduct on the water:
– swim deep and far from the shore only if you can swim well;
– do not dive in unfamiliar areas;
– Do not swim beyond the buoys;
– do not swim into the ship’s passage and do not approach ships;
– Do not grab each other’s hands and feet while playing in the water;
– if you don’t know how to swim, you can swim only in the specially equipped places no deeper than 1.2m
– if you find yourself in the water fully clothed, first of all get rid of heavy things;
– there are cases when a group of people appears in the water. The main rule in such a situation is to help and support each other. Gather in a circle and press your legs together. This way you will stay warm longer in the cold water.
If you came to the water with children, then remember that children are an object of constant attention. So never leave your children unsupervised near the water, don’t allow them to swim in unfamiliar places, jump off a cliff, swim far away. If a child can not swim, do not let him go into the water without inflatable laps and farther than waist level.
– The duration of bathing should not be more than 10-15 minutes. If you are in the water more than 15 minutes, you can catch cold, there is a risk of muscle cramping. Before entering the water, stretch and cool down after sunbathing. Overheating and muscle relaxation during bathing may cause the heart to stop. After a meal the blood rushes to the digestive organs, so it is best to swim not earlier than 1.5-2 hours
– Avoid swimming in the dark! You may bump into logs or planks floating in the water, or hit other objects.
Very often with a long stay in the water, severe overexertion or with a sudden movement may appear cramps.
* as soon as you feel a cramp, stop immediately and, turning on your back, lie down on the water.
* If you have a cramp in your front thigh muscle, straighten your leg and pull your toe forward;
* If you have a cramp in your calf muscle or the back of your thigh, straighten your leg and pull your toe toward you or try bending your knee with your hand and pressing your heel against your buttock;
* If the cramp is very strong and the leg does not straighten on its own, try doing it with your hands.
* If the arm muscles cramp, it is better to swim on your back or chest, working with your legs alone, raise your hands, continuously clenching and unclenching your fists.
*In case of abdominal cramps, you should lie on your back and pull your knees up to your stomach.
If you get caught in a strong current.
– don’t waste energy in vain and don’t fight the current;
– follow the stream diagonally to the nearest bank;
– when you see a bend ahead, head for its inner radius where the current is calmer.
If you fall into the water.
– hold your breath and pinch your nose to avoid splashing in the water;
– try to feel the bottom with your fingers;
– try to get rid of your shoes and heavy clothing as quickly as possible so they don’t drag you to the bottom;
– swim diagonally with the current to the nearest shore.
Swimming in a Storm
– Don’t waste energy and don’t fight the waves, let them carry you to shore on their own;
– As the wave approaches, begin to work vigorously with your arms and legs, trying to advance as far as possible on its crest;
– As soon as the wave is gone, relax and wait for the next one.
Rescuing a drowning man
A drowning person must first throw a lifeline, a board or any other floating objects that can keep him on the surface of the water until the arrival of the rescuers. If there are no rescue equipment, the victim can be helped by swimming. At the same time, you should swim carefully, preferably from behind to avoid entrapment.
Here are some techniques for releasing from the grip of a sinking person:
– if you have been grabbed by the hand – you must twist your hand in the direction of the sinking person’s thumbs and release from the grasp;
– if you have been grabbed by the torso from the front – perform a painful hold by pressing with your fingers under the drowning person’s auricle;
– when grabbing you by the neck from behind – duck under the arm and free yourself from the grip.
Remember that a drowning person in a state of panic does not commensurate his strength, and in order to get free of the grasp you will need to make not small efforts.
The most common ways of transporting a drowning person to shore are as follows:
– Swim up to the drowning person from the back, take him under the arms or the back of the head, near the ears, and supporting his face above the surface of the water, swim to shore. It is best to swim on your back, doing a breaststroke with your legs;
– with one hand supporting the victim from the back, swim in a breaststroke or on their side, working with their free hand and legs;
– placing the hand under both arms of the victim and grasping the distant arm above the elbow, swim in a breaststroke or on the side, working with the free hand and legs.
After bringing the victim to shore or lifting him into the boat, you should immediately give him first aid.
The first ice – dangerous ice!
With the onset of autumn frosts on rivers, lakes and ponds form an ice cover. However, these fun activities on the ice, which has not yet hardened, can lead to accidents. To avoid this happening, you must exercise caution on the ice, and strictly follow the existing rules.
Autumn ice is treacherous. It seems that it is already solid, and can even withstand the weight of the person on the shore, but worth a few steps, and suddenly there is a crack – and you find yourself in the water. Do not go out on the ice until the winter frosts.
The freezing period on the rivers is longer than on ponds and lakes, and in the middle of the ice is fragile even in early winter. Do not cross rivers on ice before they are completely frozen.
You went to a body of water in winter. What safety precautions must be strictly followed?
GENERAL RULES OF BEHAVIOR ON BODIES OF WATER IN WINTER
With the onset of winter, an ice cover forms on rivers, lakes, and ponds. It’s time for skating, skiing and sledding. However, these fun activities on the ice can lead to accidents. To avoid this, you should be careful on the ice and strictly follow the existing rules.
You can not skate and assemble in groups on thin ice, especially if it is covered with snow.
It is dangerous to run away and jump onto the ice when you do not know its strength. Be careful on the ice in unfamiliar areas and especially where there was a fast current in the summer, where rivers and streams flow into the reservoir, forming scouring holes, as well as in places of water release from factories, plants, heating plants.
You must cross water bodies in places where special ice crossings are equipped.
In places where there are no ice crossings, you should always check the ice strength with an cane or a stick. If the pole falls through, or water appears at the point of impact, or the ice cracks, you should immediately return to the shore.
During a group crossing the distance between pedestrians should be at least 5-6 m.
Be careful and cautious when sledding or skiing from a steep bank – there may be an ice hole or an ice-hole below. Skating or hockey outside the specially equipped ice rink is dangerous – you may not see cracks and fissures covered with snow.
During the winter fishing it is dangerous to gather in large groups on the ice, to make several holes nearby. To prevent someone accidentally put his foot in the ice covered hole, leaving the hole, put a sign near it.
Bypass the frozen in ice bushes, reeds, or any objects, places where rivers or streams flow into the pond, as well as industrial water dumping places – the ice is always fragile there.
YOU MAY BE INJURED IF YOU SUDDENLY FALL THROUGH THE ICE WHILE TRAVELING ON A BODY OF WATER. YOUR ACTIONS.
1. If you fall through – don’t lose your head! Do not cling to the ice edge, which under the weight of the body will constantly crumble, aggravating your situation and exhausting your energy.
2. Without losing a second, before your clothes get wet, try to crawl out onto the ice, taking a horizontal position.
If you can not and you are being pulled by the current under the ice, do not fight the current, losing strength, and rest your head against the edge of the ice and call for help. The main thing – do not panic!
4. If you have a backpack on your shoulders – when crossing in a dangerous place it should hang on one shoulder to make it easier to drop it.
5. In case you fall through the ice you can be helped either by your comrades who give you a strong footslog or throw a rope, or if you are on the ice alone – a footslog with the length of no less than three meters.
6. The one who rescues the sinking person must not come closer than five meters to the person in distress. To the fallen under the ice cautiously, crawling should approach lying down with arms and legs spread apart to the ice-hole. Crawl to a place from which you can easily throw a belt, a bag on a belt or a ski stick. To help, you should use planks, ladders, poles, ropes, gaffs. If this is not available, then: lie down on the ice and the chain move forward to the victim, holding each other by the feet, and the first serves the victim belt, clothing, etc. When the person in the water grasps the extended object, gently pull him out of the water. Having got out of an ice hole, crawl away from its edge.
Actions for household poisonings, animal and insect bites.
How do I prevent household poisonings? What are the biggest hazards?
Let’s distinguish household poisonings:
– household chemicals;
– medical preparations;
– poisonous plants;
– Carbon monoxide (household, carbon monoxide).
We are surrounded by hundreds of chemicals in our homes. And many of them can pose a real threat to our health if used carelessly. Each apartment has a large number of cosmetics, detergents and paints. If they enter inside you have a condition similar to heavy alcohol poisoning.
Almost all medications in high doses have toxic properties. Poisonings occur due to improperly increasing the dose of the medication, self-medication, and abuse of over-the-counter medications. Poisoning with sleeping pills is quite common. Even vitamins can be poisoned – it all depends on the dose.
When poisoned by drugs, the main “risk group” are children who out of curiosity swallow the beautiful, candy-like pills. Adults usually get into trouble through distraction, mere misunderstanding, or by mistake swallowing something poisonous from the wrong bottle or vial. In many homes, medicine cabinets have not been updated for years, even though the expiration date of some medicines is limited and indicated on the package.
Pesticides used to control household and garden insects are also dangerous to humans if used incorrectly. They usually contain chlorophos or carbophos, which can cause poisoning not only by accidental ingestion, but also by prolonged inhalation of their vapors. When using them, precautions should be strictly observed and only widely known remedies should be used. Unopened pesticides should not be stored together (and even carried in a bag) with foodstuffs.
Poisonous plants. Poisonings occur, as a rule, during the warm season. The risk group includes tourists who eat unfamiliar herbs and berries, and young children. Also plant poisoning often occurs because of self-medication. After all, most medicinal herbs in large quantities are poisonous, and you should strictly follow the dosage.
Foodstuffs. Poisonings occur at the use of spoiled food, lack of cooking and disregard of basic rules of hygiene. Be extremely careful with home canned food.
Food poisoning is an acute illness resulting from the consumption of food containing toxic substances.
Food poisoning develops within 4-18 hours after ingestion. A peculiarity is the simultaneous affection of a group of people who have consumed the same food.
It usually begins suddenly: there is general malaise, nausea, repeated vomiting, cramp-like abdominal pain, frequent liquid stools.
Intoxication increases rapidly: blood pressure falls, the pulse quickens and weakens, the skin turns pale and thirsty, body temperature rises to 38-40 C. If the patient is left unaided, cardiovascular failure develops catastrophically quickly, there are convulsive muscle contractions, collapse and death occurs.
Food toxicoinfection and food intoxication – acute diseases resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with certain types of microorganisms.
The causative agents are bacilli of Salmonella and botulism, which multiply well in canned meat and fish, meat and dairy products.
Alcohol. Alcohol is a poison with narcotic effect. In small doses it causes vasodilation and the effect of intoxication, but in large quantities can cause acute poisoning, life-threatening. It is a misconception that only alcoholics suffer from such poisoning. On the contrary, the less often a person drinks, the greater the chance of poisoning: after all his body is unused to the poison.
Often there are cases of poisoning by surrogate vodka. Not only cheap vodka, but also expensive drinks are often counterfeited. Low quality ethyl alcohol is used for this purpose.
In sick, weakened people and children, even a small amount of alcohol can cause severe poisoning.
Inhalation of carbon monoxide produces carboxyhemoglobin, a stable compound of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin, which cannot deliver oxygen to the tissues. Oxygen starvation develops.
Mild degree of poisoning: headache, dizziness and lack of coordination, nausea and vomiting, dry cough.
Medium degree of severity: shortness of breath, palpitations, reddening of the face, sharp muscle pain, convulsions.
Severe – loss of consciousness, pupils dilated and almost unresponsive to light, shallow breathing, convulsions; death comes from respiratory and cardiac arrest.
How to avoid poisoning? How to avoid it?
– You need to be guided by a simple principle: every thing must know its place.
– Chemicals and technical liquids should be stored in their original packaging separate from food.
-If technical liquids are stored in common containers – bottles, jars, bubbles – don’t be lazy to label them accordingly. In addition, you must strictly follow the instructions for the use of toxic substances and, if prescribed, always wear gloves or a respirator.
-Do not eat unfamiliar plants or mushrooms.
-Do not eat food that is past its expiration date or has been improperly stored.
– Clean up your medicine cabinet and remove expired medicines.
-Do not increase the dose of your medicine yourself.
Do not increase the dosage by yourself. -Consult your doctor when preparing herbal tinctures at home.
-Do not trust your health to people without medical education, offering “miracle tinctures” for all diseases, prepared by themselves.
-Keep household chemicals, medicines, and cosmetics out of reach of children.
First Aid for Poisoning
Treat any poisoning by a doctor to avoid adverse reactions and complications. Therefore, the first thing to do is to call an ambulance. But there are a few basic rules of first aid, regardless of the type of poisoning. After all, the earlier to take action, the less poison will enter the body.
And most importantly – be sure to bring with you the substance that caused the poisoning, or packaging from it, so that the doctors were easier to find an antidote.
When poisoned by household chemicals.
If poisoned by cosmetics, insecticides, aniline dyes, stain removers – immediately call an ambulance, provide fresh air, cause vomiting if the patient is conscious. If unconscious – put him on his side or stomach, so that the vomit does not get into the airways. In case of clinical death – cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
In case of poisoning by acids and caustic alkalis.
Non-probe gastric lavage is contraindicated (reverse passage of chemicals will increase damage to the esophagus, cause laryngeal edema, may also get into the airways) and introduction of neutralizing (opposite in acid-alkaline properties) solutions into the stomach. Inadmissible use of neutralizing solutions (baking soda and weak solutions of organic acids – citric, acetic) may be accompanied by the release of carbonic acid in volumes that in exceptional cases may lead to mechanical rupture of the stomach.
If the swallowing reflex is not impaired, you can be given to drink up to 200 ml of milk, which in this case is an enveloping substance that protects to a small extent the mucous membrane of the stomach.
Eyes, mouth and lips should be flushed with a small stream of water from a syringe, taking care not to allow the fluid to enter the airways. If artificial pulmonary ventilation is necessary – in this situation it is carried out by mouth-to-nose method. Emergency hospitalization!
For food poisoning, food toxicosis and intoxication.
First pre-hospital care for acute poisoning consists of detoxification measures, the purpose of which is the removal of the toxic substance from the body. This assistance does not require special medical knowledge and skills.
Detoxification begins with the introduction of chemical sorbents into the stomach – drugs capable of binding toxins dissolved in the stomach contents, preventing them from entering the bloodstream.
The most universal and affordable sorbent is activated charcoal (Carbolene). Minimum dose: 1 tablet (0.25 g) per 10 kg of body weight. In more severe poisonings the number of tablets may be 60 or more. It is used in the form of water suspension: the tablets are crushed beforehand and mixed with water (100-150 ml). Drink quickly, so that the powder particles do not settle. After 5-7 minutes try to induce vomiting by pressing on the root of the tongue.
If you manage to induce vomiting, proceed to gastric lavage. The patient is given 0.5-1 liters of cool tap water that does not contain any chemical components, because the use of any additives in the pre-hospital lavage solution may lead to chemical reactions with unpredictable consequences for the patient. Vomiting is induced again. The number of procedures varies from 3 to 5, each time before inducing vomiting the patient should drink up to 1 liter of water (the total volume of water for lavage – up to 12 liters). The criterion for sufficiency of lavage is the appearance of “clean lavage water”.
When poisoning with ethyl alcohol (alcohol).
Aid: ensure the inflow of fresh air, ice on the head, hot heating pad to the legs, inhalation of ammonia, gastric lavage (give laxatives, then water with ammonia – 3-5 drops per glass of water) are indicated.
When poisoned with methyl alcohol (methanol).
Signs of poisoning appear after 1-2 days: pain in the calf muscles, flickering of flickers before the eyes, blindness. Self-treatment threatens death. Get to a medical facility immediately! But as an exception, dictated by vital signs, at the pre-treatment stage of care the antidote for methanol poisoning is ethyl alcohol (100-150 ml of vodka), which is given after inducing vomiting. Activated charcoal is not injected into the stomach either before or after. And immediately – ambulance!
If poisoned by gas (domestic, carbon monoxide).
– Take the victim into the fresh air, undo clothing, if necessary, carry out resuscitation.
– Apply cold to the victim’s head: the cooling of the brain is a means of protecting the nerve cells in conditions of oxygen starvation, threatening their death.
– If conscious: lift legs, rub body and chest, cover warmly, sniff absorbent cotton with ammonia, then give hot tea or coffee.
– If vomiting starts, turn the victim on his stomach, turn his head to the side, clean his mouth.
– At any degree of severity of carbon monoxide poisoning – emergency hospitalization.
If there is an unnatural taste in the food you are eating, spit it out immediately. Explain it as a sudden attack of vomiting.
Don’t ask the salesperson naive questions about the freshness of the product he is selling. Even if the product was delivered an hour ago, it may have gone bad in the warehouse. Check the date of manufacture and expiration date of the product you are buying. If the date is hard to see or missing, double your vigilance and try another way to determine freshness.
If the glassware is glass, look closely at the light. The findings can be astounding. At best, the bottle may not have been washed.
Especially dangerous to buy expensive perishable products, because of their price they may have waited too long for the buyer.
When you come home, wash your hands. If there is no way to wash your hands, eat the product (bun, cheese) by holding the package.
At room temperature, any cooked product, raw meat, cottage cheese acquire a “second freshness” after an hour, and it is better not to eat them. From the use of the product that has lain for three hours, you may do more harm than good.
The heat treatment of a rotten product does not get rid of the toxins that have already formed.
Old canned foods are not fit to eat not because they are rotten, but because there has been a partial natural denaturation of the proteins with the formation of a variety of substances, among which can be toxins.
Dining room safety.
Spoons in the dining room are usually cleaner than forks – because spoons are easier to wash. In the morning every dish in the dining room can be yesterday’s food, which spent overnight at best in the refrigerator. Cutlets can be from yesterday’s goulash. Low-processed, unshredded foods are preferred. For example, ham is safer than cutlets, potatoes in tubers are safer than mashed potatoes. A lower quality raw material may have been added to the shredded product, or dirt may simply have been introduced.
Actions for animal and insect bites.
Most animal bites occur in school-age and preschool-age children. The most common bite sites are the face, arms and legs. Since children are more likely to be victims of such injuries, it is important to explain to your child that animals can be dangerous and hurt them, and to teach them to be careful when dealing with animals. Young children should always be under adult supervision at all times if there is an animal nearby.
Dog bites are more common than others. They peak in the summer period. Most of these cases are known to occur if the dog is annoyed or disturbed while sleeping or eating.
A cat bite usually causes a deeper puncture wound than a dog bite. Therefore, because of the difficulty in disinfecting the wound, the risk of introducing a bacterial infection is higher.
Bites from exotic pets such as rats, mice or gerbils can cause infection from certain diseases, among which rabies is very rare, but the risk remains very high if there is no vaccination certificate against the disease. Bites from some domesticated animals, such as iguanas, are only dangerous in terms of introducing infection and pose no other danger.
Domestic livestock. Horses, cows, and sheep have very powerful jaws. Their bites leave shattered wounds. Possible consequences include infection, tetanus or rabies.
Attack of a wild animal, and as a consequence bites, can occur while hunting, camping or hiking. As with livestock, infection, tetanus, or rabies in the wound is very likely.
If you are bitten:
If the bite is shallow, you should first prepare a twenty percent soap solution and wash the affected area with it. The solution is very easy to prepare: take one piece of toilet soap or one third of laundry soap and dissolve it in two glasses of water. In fact, in such cases it is better to use laundry soap, which contains the greatest amount of alkali. With the obtained solution, we thoroughly wash the affected area for five minutes. Then use antibacterial ointment, in order to prevent the development of an infectious process. We apply the ointment, after which we put on a sterile dressing. Even minor wounds require special attention. Remember, in such cases, the wound should heal very quickly. If the place of the lesion has purulent discharge, redness or swelling appeared, then get as soon as possible consultation with a specialist. With the development of infection you may also experience an increase in body temperature.
If the bite is deep and accompanied by bleeding, then the very first thing to remember is that such bleeding helps to clean the wound from the animal’s saliva, so there is no need to stop it right away. First, wash the wound with a twenty percent solution of soap and water for ten to fifteen minutes. Then treat the skin around the wound with ethyl alcohol or iodine solution and apply a clean dressing. It is best not to use absorbent cotton in such cases, as it can stick to the wound and then it will be very difficult to remove. Once this is done, go for medical help, as only specialist doctors will be able to give you a rabies vaccination if necessary.
When you are bitten by an animal, it is really necessary to call the paramedics in the event that:
– The animal bite is minor, but the person does not know if the animal was or was not vaccinated.
– A very deep bite in which excessive skin lesions are noted, making it impossible to see the bottom of the wound.
– A person has been bitten by an animal that has released large amounts of saliva from its mouth, and it attacked the person for no reason.
In such cases, rabies is quite possible, so the victim should be hospitalized as a matter of urgency. If the bite was caused by a dog or cat, then the victim should pay special attention to the further behavior of the animal, which will indicate the presence or absence of rabies. If rabies is still the culprit, then a special course of therapy will be necessary. Also, to detect the presence of rabies you should observe the behavior of the animal and not the victim, because in most cases the incubation period of dogs and cats is much shorter.
To prevent bites of certain animals you should:
– Shun unfamiliar animals, even if they don’t seem dangerous at first glance.
– Do not play, catch or feed wild animals such as squirrels.
– Do not disturb an animal while feeding or eating.
– Stay alert even when you are playing with your pet.
– In zoos and pet stores you should not stick your fingers in the cages of animals.
First of all, you need to determine whether it is poisonous or not. On the place of the bite there are traces of snake teeth in the form of two sickle-shaped stripes, forming a semi-oval of small dots. A non-poisonous snake leaves only this mark on the skin. If a venomous snake has bitten, there are two wounds between the crescent-shaped stripes at the front of the semi-oval (traces of its venomous teeth), which usually ooze blood.
First of all, try to suck the venom from the wound as quickly as possible, spitting it out constantly (for at least 30 minutes). This should not be done by someone who has abrasions or other damage to the mucosa of the lips or mouth. In this case you need to squeeze the venom with blood (in the direction of the wound of the bite).
The wound should be treated with any antiseptic solution – iodine, brilliant green, hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, cologne. Dry antiseptic dressing should be applied to the wound and transport immobilization of the injured limb (immobility) – to reduce the rate of venom absorption, and cold should be applied to the bite site.
For severe pain you can take 1-2 tablets of painkillers – any analgesic. Provide the victim with complete rest and plenty of warm drink (to speed up the elimination of poison): tea, coffee, alkaline mineral or plain water. It is strictly forbidden to drink alcohol, as it can lead to a cumulative toxic effect.
The victim should be taken to a medical facility as soon as possible. The most effective remedy against snake venom is polyvalent anti-snake serum administered no later than 30 minutes after the bite.
It is categorically forbidden:
– Place a tourniquet on the limb above the site of the bite. This measure does not prevent the absorption and distribution of poison in the body, but it violates blood circulation and contributes to the development of necrosis (necrosis) of tissues, worsens the condition of the patient after removing the tourniquet.
– Cauterize the bite site with fire, chemicals.
– Dissect the wound at the bite site.
These manipulations are not only useless, but also harmful. They lead to the development of long non-healing wounds, contribute to the disruption of metabolism in the affected tissues.
Be careful going to the mountains, the forest for mushrooms or berries. Use a stick to move apart brushwood, examine crevices so as not to inadvertently disturb the snake. Snakes have a very weak sense of smell and sight. Wear sturdy shoes, clothes with an overlap, not tight-fitting hands and feet.
Remember! Snake does not attack a person without an absolute necessity. It bites only to defend itself!
There is no person, not once in his life has not experienced an insect bite. Consequences of a bite depend primarily on the type of insect and secondarily on the individual characteristics of the body. For some people, the bite of an ordinary mosquito can be deadly. The reaction of the human body is not caused by the fact that the skin is punctured, but by the substances that the insects inject during the bite.
What insects can be dangerous?
The main danger for the inhabitants of mid-latitudes are stings of insects: bees, wasps, bumblebees, hornets, red ants.
These insects sting only in self-defense. During the sting or sting of the human body gets poison, consisting of active proteins and other components that are often strong allergens. According to statistics, four times more people die from bee and wasp stings than from snake stings. When biting bloodsuckers (mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, bedbugs) a person feels unpleasant sensations. But some of them are also carriers of dangerous infections. Malaria-carrying mosquitoes carry malaria. Lice carry relapsing fever, mosquitoes carry leishmaniasis. Common flies can carry typhus, dysentery, and fleas carry bubonic plague. Mosquitoes can carry viral diseases: yellow fever, dengue fever, equine encephalitis, ticks carry Lyme disease. The bite of spiders (especially the Black Widow and Brown Hermit) can cause severe complications, and even death.
The most common symptoms of an insect bite are itching, pain, swelling, and redness at the bite site. Attempting to scratch the affected area can introduce an infection. But if the victim is allergic to insect bites, the venom can provoke not only a local but also a general reaction of the body: rashes all over the body, impaired breathing, impaired consciousness. In particularly severe cases, death occurs within half an hour after the sting. A wasp or bee sting in the tongue can provoke swelling of the tongue and pharynx and then suffocation. A few bee or hornet stings cause kidney failure and paralysis. Red ant bites cause a lot of discomfort to the victim because they are very itchy and also hurt.
Allergic reaction to bites.
An allergic reaction to insect bites can be moderate or acute.
With a moderate allergic reaction, the following signs or one of them are observed: swelling, pain, rash, mild swelling, itching, increased body temperature in the sting site. If you have been allergic to an insect bite once, you have a 60% chance of it happening again. Moderate allergic reactions are observed in many victims and do not require special measures. Standard care is quite sufficient.
Signs of an acute allergic reaction: swelling of the face, respiratory disorders, shortness of breath, anxiety, nervousness, acceleration of heartbeat, the rash appears all over the body. The rash is itchy and very bright, dizzy, and blood pressure drops dramatically. Severe reactions to insect bites are not very common. However, within ten minutes, the patient can develop anaphylactic shock, impaired consciousness and lethal outcome. Therefore, such a victim requires immediate medical attention. The first remedy used in anaphylactic shock is adrenaline (epinephrine). Timely administered drug stops the allergic manifestations. Sometimes oxygen masks, IVs and other more serious procedures are used. The patient may be left in the hospital for another 24 hours for complete stabilization. Individuals who have experienced such conditions once should always have an ampoule of epinephrine with them during hikes in the woods and walks in nature. But sometimes a single dose of this drug is not enough, so in any case it is necessary to call an ambulance.
What to do after the bite? If the bite is in the hand, you need to immediately remove all the rings, and then immediately pull out the stinger and try to gently squeeze the liquid out of the wound. Persons who are not allergic to bee and wasp stings only need to take an antihistamine tablet, apply a cold lotion with ammonia (diluted in a ratio of 1:5) or with ethyl alcohol, diluted with water three times. It also doesn’t hurt to drink some warm tea and lie down. Just in case, an antihistamine drug can be taken for a couple of days in a row until the swelling goes away. Some people have an individual intolerance to the poison after some time. Therefore, those who are unsure of their body should closely monitor signs such as nausea, changes in blood pressure, increased body temperature, rashes on other sites, and breathing complications.
Folk treatments for bee, wasp, bumblebee or hornet stings:y
1. Chew and stick a leaf of plantain on the affected area. 2.
Wash the sting site with urine. 2.
3. Tape a dandelion leaf to the bite site, pre-minted.
4. Make a strong infusion of veronicas herb and do with it lotions.
5. Attach parsley leaves to the affected area. This will eliminate pain and swelling. Inside, take a decoction of the roots of this plant: two tablespoons of raw materials half a liter of boiling water. Pour in a thermos overnight. Drink a third of a glass three times a day for 30 minutes before a meal. This remedy eliminates sensitization of the body.
6. Three tablespoons of succession brewed in a thermos 500 ml of boiling water overnight. Orally use 100 ml three times a day for half an hour before a meal. Make lotions with leaves of succession.
7. Squeeze the juice of mint leaves, treat the stinging site. This will relieve pain, inflammation, and relaxation.
8. Cut a raw onion and with the cut of it attach it to the sting site. Leave it on overnight. You can treat the sore spot with onion juice.
Multiple stings by wasps or bees can be very dangerous. If you accidentally stumble on a wasp’s nest in the woods, you should never try to swat away insects or crush them. You need to get away from this place as quickly as possible. If only one insect has released the poison, the others smell it and also rush to attack. In case of multiple bites it is necessary to go to the hospital immediately.
Mosquito bites do not only leave behind excruciating itching. These insects can be really dangerous if they carry the pathogen of malaria. There are more than two thousand known species of mosquitoes. And not all of them are carriers of malaria. As soon as the sting is inserted into the body, a substance that prevents blood from clotting is immediately injected into human tissue. This very same anticoagulant causes itching and redness. Even five hundred mosquito bites are not dangerous for an adult healthy person. However, for an allergic person even one may be enough to cause a severe allergic reaction and even death.
What to do after a bite?
1. Periodically treat the itchy spot with a strong solution of baking soda.
2. Lubricate bites with alcoholic tincture of calendula, boric alcohol, tomato juice.
3. Make a cold lotion.
4. If there are multiple bites, take an antihistamine.
5. In the first aid kit or in the country house you should definitely keep an antihistamine, phenistyl or fucorcin (relieve itching and even eliminate stinging nettle burns).
Folk methods for mosquito bites
1. treat with sour cream or kefir.
2. Apply a leaf of bird cherry or plantain to the place of the bite.
3. Lubricate the affected place with balsam “Zvezdochka”.
If you can’t help it, take a few drops of Echinacea tincture and then swallow it. According to doctors, echinacea regulates the immune system and eliminates allergic manifestations.
5. Crush a tablet of activated charcoal and add water to make a pulp. Apply it to the bite site so that it does not dry out quickly, cover the top with clingfilm. The charcoal acts as an antidote, absorbing the poison molecules from the wound.
6. Make a lotion of milk or milk ice. Hold for up to 10 minutes.
Bites of house insects (bed bugs).
There are over fifty thousand varieties of bed bugs on the planet. There are about a thousand species in temperate climates. It is not uncommon for a bedbug bite to be mistaken for a mosquito bite or even an allergy. Bed bugs like to take up residence in hard-to-reach places, such as crevices, under baseboards, in crevices of furniture, behind pictures and wallpaper. During the day they can be found only if you carefully look for them. A bug bite is completely painless, as it injects an anesthetic substance into the wound. Sometimes a bedbug will puncture the body in several places to drink blood, as it cannot immediately find a nearby vessel. Bed bugs carry serious diseases such as tuberculosis, plague, anthrax and smallpox.
What to do. If bed bugs are detected, there are only two options to get rid of them: move to another dwelling for a while or call specialists in disinfestation. You can also treat your apartment yourself. But to do this, you need to get a protective suit and respirator, gloves and a device for spraying. It is necessary to treat with a solution absolutely all objects, walls and floors. That is, all surfaces and cracks. If you treat a room in parts, the cunning bed bugs will simply move on to surfaces that have not yet been treated. Therefore, treatment should be carried out at once and everywhere. Be sure to immediately treat door jambs, ventilation passages. After disinfestation, all windows should be opened and left to air out. After airing, you should wipe all places you touch with a wet rag. Sometimes the product does not kill all bed bugs right away, it may take a week or even a month, depending on the product you choose.
Ticks more often inhabit forests, but they also feel great in meadows. For walks in nature, you should choose light-colored clothes – it’s easier to spot the insect on them. During the walk you should thoroughly inspect each other once an hour. It is desirable that the pants at the bottom were seized with an elastic band or cuff. You can tuck them into boots. Most often ticks hunt their victims sitting on grasses or twigs. They can only crawl up, they can’t go down. You can play on this when choosing clothing for the walk. If a tick encounters an obstacle while traveling through your clothes, it won’t be able to get over it. When you return home from your walk, you should very carefully review not only your clothes, but also the flowers, twigs or toys you brought from the woods.
What to do if a tick has sucked?
1. You should not drip any oils and spirits on the tick. In such a situation the insect will try to defend itself by injecting more poison into its body.
2. Using tweezers (at most with your fingers) take the insect and twist it like a screw. This method gives one hundred percent result. Only it is not necessary to pull it, but to unscrew it.
3. After removing the insect, you need to carefully examine the wound – whether the insect’s proboscis remains in it. Then treat it with an alcoholic preparation.
4. Give the victim an antihistamine.
5. If the region is encephalitis-prone, it is recommended to immediately contact a clinic after a sting.
Bites in children. Children are a tidbit for bites of blood-sucking insects, because their skin is thin and blood circulation is very active. Even the bite of an ordinary mosquito can cause quite extensive redness, and swelling can be greater than that of an adult. Usually after a couple of days, they gradually begin to fade and go away. Otherwise, the reaction of the child’s body to any insect bite is not very different from that of adults.
First aid for stinging insect bites is as follows: remove the sting, put ice on it, give antihistamines inside, lubricate the sore spot with phenistil gel, or in more severe cases, with Advant cream. The first product is created on the basis of herbal ingredients, and the second includes hormones. Be sure to send your child to the hospital if there are several bites, if they are in the mouth, on the face. When bitten by a mosquito, you can also lubricate the blister with phenistil. If the baby is trying to scratch the blister – you must be sure to relieve the itching. After all, through a small scratch is easy to get an infection. Methods to relieve itching after mosquito bites: Dilute baking soda with water to a pulp, treat the blister, rub with ammonia diluted in equal parts water, treat the blister with mint toothpaste. In nature a child can be attacked by horseflies. The bite of this insect is very painful, in addition, the wound can later become inflamed and even fester, since the insect can lay its eggs under the skin. These insects are more active on a clear sunny day.
If a child is bitten by a horsefly, you need to wash the wound with soap and water as soon as possible. To relieve the itching, the same baking soda will help. The lotions are applied for 15 minutes, and then replaced with new ones. Blindflies are perfectly safe in the shade and attack only on sunny meadows, close to bodies of water.
Ointments for insect bites. All ointments used to eliminate the effects of insect bites are divided into hormonal and non-hormonal. Psilo-balm, Vitaon, gold star, phenistil gel, Sinaflan, Advantan.
Poisonous insect bites. Despite the fact that the vast majority of poisonous insects are no more dangerous than bees, the reaction to them depends largely on the condition of the body. Statistically, the most frequent victims of scorpion bites are infants with weak defenses. Prevention of stings of such dangerous insects in the regions of their inhabitation is the use of repellents, careful inspection of shoes and clothing before putting them on, plugging all cracks through which insects can get into a house or a tent.
Emergency pre-hospital care for poisonous spider bites (scorpion, caracourt, tarantula) is similar to that for poisonous snake bites.
However, suction of venom when bitten by scorpion, snapper, tarantula is contraindicated, because their toxins have the ability to be absorbed through the intact mucous membranes.
1. Take into account daily activity of insects. For example, mosquitoes in temperate climates are usually active at twilight. Therefore, people suffering from allergies to their bites should refrain from walks at this time of day.
2. When walking in nature, it is better to dress in light clothing, but with long pants and sleeves. T-shirts and shirts should be tucked into pants. On the head it is desirable to wear a panama. That is, open areas of the body should be as little as possible.
3. you should not neglect repellents. They can be applied not only directly to the body, but also to clothes (there are special products for this). Means containing permethrin repel mosquitoes, ticks and other insects. They must be applied to the fabric, and even after several washings they retain their effect. At the same time this type of treatment is practically harmless to humans. Another active substance used by many manufacturers of repellents is DETA. It can be applied both on clothing and directly on the skin. The drug should not contain more than 35% of DETA, because a larger amount has no effect on efficiency, but has an adverse effect on health.
Repellents for children. When choosing a repellent, you should first of all read the inscriptions on the package. Children’s products should not contain the substance diethyltoluamide (DETA) as an active ingredient. This ingredient is very toxic, so children under the age of six should not apply it even on clothing. You can treat your baby’s clothes and skin with vanilla extract, cedar or clove oil, tincture of melissa or eucalyptus. For children, you should not choose products in the form of aerosols, but only creams, ointments or gels.
How to use repellents correctly? When using mosquito repellents to treat the body, you should remember that the poisons that are dangerous to mosquitoes are also dangerous to humans.
Use mosquito nets. They are now made not only for windows, but even for cribs and strollers.
5. You can use eucalyptus extract instead of fumigator liquid. Mosquitoes can’t stand the smell.
6. Mosquitoes can sense a mile high blood cholesterol levels and prefer these people to everyone else. Therefore, normalize your cholesterol.
How to minimize harm from the toxic components of repellents?
1. If you are planning to be in the nature not longer than an hour and a half, you should choose preparations with low concentration of the active substance (up to 10%). But such preparations are no good against ticks – they are only afraid of killing concentrations higher than 20%.
2. You should not sprinkle repellent – its increased amount will not affect the effect in any way.
To apply cream or gel on your body you should wear thin medical gloves. 4.
4. You can not apply aerosol on your face! You can only use cream, ointment, or gel.
5. Do not use aerosols in closed rooms.
6. Do not treat areas of skin that are hidden by clothing.
7. Some components of repellents may interact with synthetic fibers in fabrics. Therefore, it is preferable to wear clothes made of natural fabrics.
8. Do not treat areas with scratches, wounds, inflammation, lips, and eyelids with repellent.
9. After a walk, you need to take a shower and remove any residual substance from your body.
10. If clothes are treated with repellent, they should be changed as soon as protection is no longer needed.
11. The manufacturer usually suggests how often you should use the repellent – don’t ignore the recommendations.
Plants to repel insects
Velvetveteen – Flies and mosquitoes hate the smell of velveteen.
Bergamot can help to avoid bites and also relieve inflammation of bites. Very effective in this case in combination with lavender.
3. Verbena – repels any insects.
4. Clove – excellent for repelling mosquitoes and flies.
5. Geranium – both as a plant and as an oil repels insects.
6. Cedar – repels gnats and mosquitoes.
7. Cypress – is a strong insecticide.
8. Lavender – effective against moths, mosquitoes, flies. Helps avoid blisters from bites.
9. Laurel – will repel insects and help blisters heal faster.
10. Melissa – great for repelling insects and also relieves the pain of stings.
Eucalyptus is an excellent insect repellent.
Household Electric Appliances. Rules for their handling.
Nowadays it is impossible to imagine life without electricity.
Electricity, improving the conditions of our life, helping us to solve simple and complex problems of life, if handled improperly can be dangerous, in some cases even fatal. Even young children are aware of this danger. And yet, every year.
And yet every year thousands of people around the world are injured by electricity and are sometimes electrocuted to death.
When electric current passes through the body, it has the following effects on the human body
Thermal – manifested by burns of certain parts of the human body.
electrolytic – appears in decomposition of organic liquids, causing significant violations of their physical and chemical composition.
mechanical – tears body tissues, blood vessel walls, breaks bones, tears tendons;
biological – muscle contraction under the influence of electric current.
There are three main types of electric shock to humans:
– electrical injuries;
– electric shock;
– electric shock.
The types of electrical injuries include: electrical burns, electrical signs, metallization of the skin, mechanical damage and electro-ophthalmia.
Electric shock is the excitation of living body tissues by an electric current passing through it. Electric shock is accompanied by a strong contraction of the muscles. The outcome can range from mild to fatal.
Causes of death by electric shock may be loss of breath, cardiac arrest and electric shock. It is also possible for all three causes to occur simultaneously.
Electric shock is a peculiar, severe nerve-reflex reaction of the body in response to excessive irritation by electric current, accompanied by profound disorders of circulation, respiration and metabolism. Shock condition lasts from a few tens of minutes to a day. After that there can come either the death of the person, or recovery as a result of timely active medical intervention.
The severity of electrical trauma depends on:
– The magnitude of the current flowing through the human body.
– Duration of exposure (with increasing duration the probability of severe or fatal outcome increases).
– Type and frequency of current (alternating or direct); with alternating current – from its frequency; The most dangerous to humans is alternating current.
– Paths passed by current through the human body. The most dangerous paths are those passing through the vital organs (heart, lungs, brain), i.e. head to hands, head to feet, hand to hand, hands to feet. A current passing through the leg – leg path may cause a person to fall and form a more dangerous path (arms – legs) with greater step tension. Since the resistance of the skin on different parts of the body is different, the outcome of the injury depends on the place of contact with the live parts.
– Environmental conditions (high humidity reduces the resistance of the human body and the environment).
– The health condition of the person, which has a significant effect on the value of the resistance of the human body. Physically weak, sick, fatigued people, as well as women are less able to withstand the effects of electric current.
Everyone should firmly remember that there is no such thing as a safe voltage and that you must not touch live parts, no matter what voltage they are carrying. When it is necessary to work on or near equipment which may be live, protective equipment must be used: earthing, insulation, insulating tools.
A current of 8-10 mA is already really dangerous, because when it acts, a person cannot free himself from contact with a live conductor. A current of 100 mA leads to cardiac arrest and respiratory failure.
Persons suffering from a number of diseases, primarily skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, and nervous disorders (illnesses) have an increased susceptibility to electric current.
Proper operation of electrical appliances means prevention from its improper operation related to power supply, connection to the network, compliance with the mode of operation, duration of loads, observance of safe work practices.
Safety measures in the home and outdoors.
To prevent electrical shock, it is important to remember and observe the following rules:
Do not touch wires that are sagging or lying on the ground, climb on overhead power line poles, roofs of structures with electrical wires nearby, fly kites and play under overhead lines.
You should not approach a broken wire: it can strike a step voltage. If you do have to cross the danger zone near a wire lying on the ground, you should run: only one foot should touch the ground at a time.
Use electrical apparatus and appliances that do not comply with the instructions or have faults, as well as operate wires and cables with damaged insulation.
Household appliances (kettles, stoves, etc.), portable lights are intended for use only in rooms with non-conductive floors.
Wrap electric lamps and light fixtures with paper, cloth or other combustible materials, and operate them with their covers removed.
Use electric irons, electric stoves, electric kettles without stands made of non-combustible materials.
A dry room of an apartment or a house will be safe if the main condition is observed: all sockets, electric appliances and lamps are remote from heating pipes and water pipes, other metal utilities so that a simultaneous contact with these objects and the appliance, cord, socket is excluded.
Circuit breakers, circuit breakers in the apartment network must always be in working order. Do not use so-called bugs. Do not replace live circuit breakers, lamp sockets and light fixtures. Do this work only after the mains has been disconnected.
Use non-standard electric heaters, uncalibrated fusible links or other makeshift overload and short-circuit protection devices.
Keep electrical appliances and the cords by which they are plugged in in good working order. Observe the order of plugging the appliance into the mains – first connect the cord to the appliance and then to the mains. Disconnect the appliance in reverse order.
Before you plug in the power cord, make sure it is from the appliance you are going to plug in. Also, after unplugging the plug from the outlet, make sure that you do not make a mistake. If the cords from adjacent appliances are similar, make them different: wrap them with insulation tape or paint them.
Make sure that the outlets and other connectors do not spark, get hot, or crackle. If the contacts are blackened, clean them and remove the cause of the loose connection.
Plug more than three appliances into the same outlet.
Do not hammer a nail into a wall unless you know where the hidden electrical wiring is.
If you need to clean an electrical appliance, replace a light bulb or fuse, turn off the common electrical switch in the apartment.
Do not keep plugged-in appliances in the bathtub – a plugged-in appliance or light bulb that falls into the bathtub while you are bathing may have serious consequences.
Do not install electrical outlets too close to the bathtub or sink.
Do not use hair dryers or electric shavers if they are wet or have exposed conductive parts.
Do not repair appliance plugs with electrical tape. Replace them if they break.
Do not handle an iron with wet hands and do not iron while standing on the floor barefoot.
Leave electric heaters, televisions, radios, etc. unattended.
Do not wrap the cord around a hot iron, this may damage the wire insulation.
Before pouring water into the iron’s steamer tank, unplug the plug from the socket.
Remove the plug from the socket first, then roll up the extension cord.
Any bare wires or broken wires should be repaired immediately. Do not make temporary wire connections.
When temporarily installing Christmas tree electric lights do not forget the basic safety standards.
Do not hang anything from the wires or pull on them.
When switching appliances on and off, always hold the socket with one hand so that it doesn’t fall out of the wall, and with the other hand hold the plug, but not the cord.
What to do if you are a witness to an electric shock
If all precautions have failed and someone has been electrocuted, consider the following guidelines:
– First of all, quickly free the victim from exposure to the current. Determine the source of the current and whether it can be disconnected (circuit breaker, plug in the socket, plugs, etc.). Disconnect power. If this is not possible, pull the person away by their clothes, wrapping your arm in any dry cloth (one hand is required) so that you are not exposed to the current, or cut the wire (with an axe, a shovel). Throw away the broken piece of wire with a dry stick. Call an ambulance if possible.
It should be remembered that touching a person who has been energized can be dangerous to the rescuer himself.
– If the person is conscious but cannot get away from the wire, pull sharply on their clothing, throwing them away from the wire.
– If a high-voltage wire breaks, leave the area of step voltage by jumping on one or two legs closed together.
– After eliminating exposure to the current, give the person pre-medical treatment.
– If conscious, lay the victim on his back with his feet elevated 30 cm and cover him with warm clothing.
– If unconscious, with no apparent severe burns or injuries, place the victim on his back on something hard. Provide fresh air. Give him smelling ammonia, splashing him with water, rubbing and warming his body, and cover him with a light blanket.
– with extensive burns, do not use cold water to avoid worsening the state of shock.
– only carry the victim if the danger continues to threaten him or her or the person assisting him or her.
– if there is no pulse in the major arteries and no external signs of breathing, begin first aid treatment.
4. Ways to prevent and overcome panic and panic in dangerous and emergency situations
Those who claim to have no sense of fear are, above all, deceiving themselves. The feeling of fear that arises in a moment of danger in humans is a natural feeling. It is the instinct for self-preservation, the alarm signal in a dangerous situation. Fear mobilizes physical strength, speeds up the brain, concentrates attention, helps get out of a deadlock.
The absence of a sense of fear in some cases means a lack of imagination and, therefore, an inability to assess danger. On the contrary, those with a fervent imagination may often experience this feeling disproportionately to the real danger.
Fear causes people to experience restlessness, trembling, weakness, impotence, immobility, and agitation. This condition is accompanied by disorders of the vegetative nervous system or hysterical reaction, which is characterized by vagueness of judgment and inability to act. Lack of clarity in assessment of a situation entails a state of hopelessness and refusal to resist. A panic-stricken person can quickly draw others around him or her into such a state as well.
Such behavior is devoid of any common sense. It is pure instinct, characterized by the cry, “Run for your life!
Panic-stricken people completely lose their individual dignity and become part of a destructive mass unable to control their actions. A crowd acting blindly can increase danger. The lack of awareness of the real danger has repeatedly led to rash actions, such as jumping from the windows of upper floors. In those moments, this seemed less distressing than waiting for help or finding another way to escape.
Some researchers believe that crowds are a special biological organism. It acts according to its own laws and does not always take into account the interests of the individual components – including their safety.
This becomes clear during any panic. Very often the crowd becomes more dangerous than the natural disaster or accident that caused it. Research by E. Carantelli (USA) shows the following characteristic features of panic:
– panic flight is always directed away from the danger (no attempt is made to somehow influence the onset of danger);
– the direction of flight in panic is not random (the choice is to follow a familiar path or the one used by others);
– panic flight is associative in character (the strongest ties may be broken: a mother may abandon her child, a husband may abandon his wife, etc.); people become an unexpected source of danger to each other;
– a panic-stricken person always believes that the situation is extremely dangerous (panic flight stops when a person thinks he/she is out of the danger zone);
– panic-stricken person is not thinking clearly, but his.thoughts are not unreasonable (the problem is rather that he does not look for alternative solutions and does not see the details of his decision, sometimes the main ones, as in the typical case of fires: jumping from a fatally high height).
The basic psychological picture of the crowd looks like this::
1. Decrease of intellectual beginning and increase of emotional one.
2. A sharp increase in suggestibility and a decrease in the ability to think independently. Adolf Hitler noted this with the aphorism, “Lock up your heart and give me the key.
3: The crowd needs a leader or an object of hatred, it will gladly obey or smash; the crowd is capable of both extreme cruelty and self-sacrifice, even to the leader himself.
4. the crowd is quickly exhausted, having achieved something. Grouped people quickly come to their senses and change their behavior and assessment of what is going on (see also MITIGING).1
5 In the life of a street (especially political-social) crowd, elements such as the first stone in the window and first blood are very important. These steps can take the crowd to a fundamentally different level of danger, where collective irresponsibility turns every member of the crowd into a criminal. From such a crowd one must leave immediately.
Counteracting panic is extremely difficult. A very famous and respected person who holds a firm line of conduct, who is able to talk to the crowd and inspire respect can cope with it.
Means to deal with panic
1. Persuasion (if there is time);
2. A categorical order;
3. Explanation of the danger, which at the moment is immaterial;
4. the use of force and the elimination of the most vicious panickers.
Stopping a panic-stricken crowd is much easier by starting with the latter and reducing the group as much as possible. Blocking the way of a crowd that is moving is much more difficult, since those walking ahead are pressured from behind. When fear becomes a constant state, it turns into meanness.
Overcoming difficulties in dealing with panic
1. A man must believe in something higher, either in himself or in the rightness of what he is doing;
2. The motivation of one’s own actions should be a strong impulse that helps one to overcome difficulties;
3. experience, previous trials, lived life can give strength to a person.
One must always be psychologically prepared to survive. Such a person is in better conditions and nothing bad will happen to him.
In an emergency, it is important that you be able to
1. Make quick decisions;
2. Be able to improvise;
3. Be constantly and continuously in control of myself;
4. To be able to discern danger and recognize people;
5. Be independent and self-reliant;
6. Be firm and decisive when needed, but be able to obey when necessary;
7. Identify and know one’s capabilities and not lose heart;
8. Try to find a way out in any situation. Never give up, the stakes are very high to give up on life in an emergency without trying every possible means.