Currently, every teacher should know that learning, education and health are inextricably linked and mutually influencing categories.
Orientation to health-saving technologies in teaching is one of the main and urgent tasks of the whole system of education.
Therefore, this topic is the topic of my self-education. This includes the creation of optimal conditions for the implementation of health-saving technologies at the lessons of physical education and in extracurricular activities. As a teacher of physical education I try to organize my work with students, teachers, parents, and graduates in such a way that health preservation is the main priority in this activity.
New is well forgotten old, filled with an improved conceptual apparatus, and we have always paid and pay great attention to health issues.
Relevance of the topic is predetermined by the fact that human health is the main value of a person, it is at school age where the foundations of health-saving thinking and behavior of an individual are laid. On the other hand, the school environment most often does not create conditions for health promotion.
The state of health of children in Russia causes reasonable concern. According to experts, about 90% of children have deviations in physical and mental health; 30-35% of children entering school already have chronic diseases; over the years the number of visual impairments and posture disorders has increased fivefold, the number of mental health disorders has increased fourfold, the number of children with diseases of the digestive system has tripled: up to 80% of young men of conscription age by medical criteria are not ready for service in the armed forces. This state of health is the result of long-term adverse effects of not only socio-economic, environmental, but also a number of pedagogical factors. In this regard, one of the priority tasks in my work was the preservation and strengthening of children’s health, the formation of their concept of the value of health and a healthy way of life.
Objective: to generalize the studied materials on this topic; to identify ways and ways of forming a culture of health, to apply in practice.
1.Generalization of advanced pedagogical experience on this topic.
2.active use of health-saving technologies in the activities of physical education teachers
Teaching the principles of healthy eating and health-saving of pupils during classes and after school hours by using various methods of health promotion.
Duration of the experience: Unfortunately, a healthy lifestyle does not yet occupy the first place in the hierarchy of human needs and values in our society. The pedagogical experience of physical education teachers should be based on the fundamental priorities:
1. A healthy child is a practically attainable standard of child development.
2. Health-improvement is not a set of therapeutic and prophylactic measures, but a form of development of psychophysiological capabilities of children.
3. An individual and differentiated approach – the main means of health-improving and developing work with students.
The leading pedagogical idea of the experience: to motivate children teachers and parents to value, take care of and strengthen their health from an early age, to strive to become healthier and more developed not only personally, intellectually, spiritually, but also physically.
Health care of children can be called a priority for the whole society, because only healthy children are able to properly absorb the acquired knowledge and in the future are able to engage in productive and useful work.
There are more than 300 definitions of health. As defined by the World Health Organization, health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not just the absence of disease or physical defect.
– is the perfection of self-regulation in the body, harmony of physiological processes, maximum adaptation to the environment (pedagogical definition);
– it is the state of growth and development of organs and systems of the body, the basis
which is based on morphological and functional reserves that provide adaptive responses (medical definition).
– Is high consciousness, developed thinking, great inner and
moral force, which encourages creative activity (pedagogical definition);
– it is the state of the mental sphere, the basis of which is the status of
general mental comfort, adequate behavioral response (medical definition).
– Is the health of society as well as the environment for each individual.
– is a set of characteristics of motivational and needs – informative sphere in life activities, the basis of which is determined by the system of values, attitudes and motives of behavior of the individual in society.
– A system of values and beliefs.
In characterizing the concept of “health” both individual and social characteristics are used.
A person’s health, first of all, depends on the lifestyle. This style is personified. Healthy lifestyle combines everything that contributes to the performance by a person of professional, social, family and domestic functions in optimal conditions for health and determines the focus of personal efforts in the preservation and strengthening of individual and public health.
The concept of “health-saving educational technology” (HST) has appeared in the pedagogical lexicon in the last few years and is still perceived by many teachers as an analogue of sanitary and hygienic measures. This indicates a distorted understanding of the term “health-saving educational technology”, primitive ideas about the content of the work that should be carried out by the school to implement its most important task – to preserve and promote the health of students.
Teachers of general educational institutions also have different understanding of this term. Some believe that EHS is one or more new pedagogical technologies, alternative to all others, and therefore one can choose whether to work, for example, with the S. Fresnel, V. Zaitsev, M. Montessori, etc. technologies or with “health-preserving technology.
Another variant of understanding can be designated as “mythologization of the idea of health saving technologies”: as if never before seen in schools and possessing miraculous efficacy.
The goal of a pedagogical (educational) technology is to achieve a given educational result in training, education and development. For example, V.N. Zaitsev’s technology is aimed at achieving optimal results in junior schoolchildren’s mastery of general educational skills; the goal of L.V. Zankov’s system of developmental education is comprehensive and harmonious development of the personality, etc.
By definition, health preservation cannot act as the main and only goal of the educational process, but only as a condition, one of the tasks associated with achieving the main goal.
Under health-saving educational technology (Petrov) understands a system that creates the best possible conditions for the preservation, strengthening and development of spiritual, emotional, intellectual, personal and physical health of all subjects of education (students, teachers, etc.).
Functions of health-saving technology:
forming: is carried out on the basis of biological and social laws of personality formation. The formation of personality is based on hereditary qualities that predetermine individual physical and mental properties.
informative-communicative: provides translation of the experience of a healthy lifestyle, continuity of traditions, value orientations, forming a careful attitude to individual health, the value of each human life;
Diagnostic: is to monitor the development of students on the basis of prognostic monitoring that allows to measure the efforts and direction of action of the teacher in accordance with the natural abilities of the child, provides an instrumentally verified analysis of the prerequisites and factors of the prospective development of the pedagogical process, the individual passage of the educational route of each child; adaptive: educating students to focus on healthy lifestyle, to optimize the condition of their of their own bodies and increase their resistance to different kinds of stress factors of the natural and social environment. It provides
adaptation of schoolchildren to socially important activities.
Reflective: consists in rethinking of the previous personal experience, in the preservation and multiplication of health that allows you to compare the actual results achieved with the prospects.
Integrative: it combines the folk experience, different scientific
various scientific concepts and educational systems, guiding them along the path of preserving the health of the younger generation.
of the younger generation.
Types of technologies:
Health-saving (preventive vaccinations, provision of motor activity, vitaminization, organization of a healthy diet)
Health-improving (physical training, physiotherapy, aromatherapy, hardening, gymnastics, massage, phytotherapy, art therapy)
Health education technologies (inclusion of the appropriate topics into the general education cycle subjects)
Nurturing a culture of health (extracurricular activities to develop the students’ personality, extracurricular and extracurricular activities, festivals, contests, etc.)
A systematic sequence of introducing health-saving technologies to the school and each teacher:
1. awareness of the problem of the negative impact of school on students’ health and the need to resolve it immediately
2. Recognition by school teachers of their joint responsibility for the health problems of students
3. learning the necessary health-saving technologies (acquiring competencies) Implementing the training received in practice, in close cooperation with each other, with doctors, with students themselves and their parents
– Significant decrease in the number of absolutely healthy children (no more than 10-12% remain)
– rapid increase in the number of functional disorders and chronic diseases, which are registered among more than 50-60% of schoolchildren
– sharp increase in the share of pathologies of the digestive organs, locomotor system, kidneys and urinary tract
– an increase in the number of schoolchildren with several diagnoses (20% of high-school students have five or more diagnoses in their medical histories)
Education deficiencies include, but are not limited to:
– Failure to meet SanPiN norms
– Insufficient lighting of classrooms;
– Poor air quality in school facilities;
– Inappropriate shape and size of school desks;
– Overload of classes;
– dosage of homework.
The main “school” factors that negatively affect students’ health:
Actively studied and discussed:
– Curriculum overload, intensification of the learning process;
– Imperfect curriculum;
– Authoritarian teaching style;
– Lack of individual approach to students;
– The use of predominantly educational technology, to the detriment of educational;
– Lack of physical activity of students;
– Inadequate nutrition of students;
– lack of hygienic requirements in the organization of the educational process;
– Insufficient funding for the school.
Insufficiently discussed and studied issues:
– Insufficient competence of teachers in health issues, health-saving technologies;
– Low level of health culture of students, their illiteracy in health issues;
– weak use of technologies that give students the experience of “success” and “joy” necessary to maintain psychological health and effective socio-psychological adaptation in independent life;
– unfavorable state of health of teachers;
Pedagogical factors that have an adverse impact on student health:
– stressful tactics of authoritarian pedagogy; intensification of the educational process, i.e. increase in the pace and volume of the learning load;
– non-compliance of teaching technologies with the age peculiarities of students;
– non-compliance with elementary physical and hygienic requirements for the organization of the educational process;
– lack of elementary knowledge among students about how to become healthy.
The analysis of carrying out a lesson from the point of view of health preservation.
A teacher in the organization and carrying out of a lesson should take into account:
1) environment and hygienic conditions in the classroom (study): temperature and freshness of the air, rationality of classroom and blackboard lighting, presence/absence of monotonous, unpleasant sound irritants, etc;
2) number of types of learning activities: questioning students, writing, reading, listening, storytelling, looking at visual aids, answering questions, solving examples, problems, etc. The norm is 4-7 types per lesson. Frequent changes of one activity to another require additional adaptation efforts from students;
3) average duration and frequency of alternation of different types of learning activities. The approximate norm is 7-10 minutes;
Number of types of teaching: verbal, visual, audiovisual, independent work, etc. The norm is not less than three;
5) alternation of types of teaching. The norm is not later than 10-15 minutes;
6) presence and choice of a place at a lesson of the methods promoting activation of initiative and creative self-expression of pupils themselves. These are such methods as the method of free choice (free conversation, choice of a way of action, choice of a way of interaction; freedom of creativity, etc.); active methods (students as teachers, learning by doing, discussion in groups, role play, discussion, seminar, the student as a researcher); methods aimed at self-knowledge and development (intellect, emotions, communication, imagination, self-assessment and mutual evaluation);
7) place and duration of the use of TSO (in accordance with hygienic norms), the ability of the teacher to use them as opportunities to initiate discussion, discussion;
8) pupils’ postures, alternation of postures;
9) physical activity breaks and other health-improving moments at the lesson – their place, content and duration. The norm – for 15-20 minutes of the lesson 1 minute of 3 light exercises with 3 – repetitions of each exercise;
10) presence of students’ motivation for learning activity in the lesson (interest to lessons, desire to learn more, joy of activity, interest in the studied material, etc.) and methods used by the teacher to increase this motivation;
11) presence in the content part of the lesson of the questions connected with health and a healthy way of life; demonstration, tracing of these connections; formation of the attitude to the person and his health as to value; development of understanding of the essence of a healthy way of life; formation of the need for a healthy way of life; development of an individual way of safe behavior, message to pupils of knowledge about possible consequences of behavioral choices, etc;
12) the psychological climate at the lesson; – presence of emotional discharge at the lesson: jokes, smiles, aphorisms with comments, etc;
At the end of the lesson the following should be paid attention to:
14) the density of the lesson, i.e. the amount of time spent by pupils on academic work. The norm is not less than 60 % and not more than 75-80 %;
15) the moment of students’ fatigue and reduction of their learning activity. It is defined in the course of observation by increase of motor and passive distractions of children in the course of educational work;
16) the tempo and features of the end of a lesson:
– fast pace, “crumpled”, no time for students’ questions, quick, almost no comments, writing down homework;
– calm end of the lesson: students have an opportunity to ask the teacher questions and the teacher can comment the homework and say goodbye to the students;
– delay of students in the class after the bell (at recess).
Provisions for health-forming education
of the physical education lesson at school
1. Creation of such general educational program which forms and provides health of students.
The teacher’s activity in this aspect should include acquaintance with the results of medical examinations of children, their consideration in educational work; assistance to parents in building a healthy life activity of students and family as a whole.
2. Creation of conditions for an interested attitude to learning.
Control tests, assignments, tests, etc. should only provide background (and current) information for the development of individual assignments, the essence of which – the student must in each successive period of time to progress, which will confirm the next test. If this does not happen, then the teacher should make appropriate adjustments to the individual assignments. It is fundamentally important that the student is not compared with others on the principle of “better or worse than others,” but is compared with himself or herself: I am better today than I was yesterday, and tomorrow I will try to be better than I am today. However, for this to happen, assignments had to be realistic and encourage students to be active. So far the grading criteria are based on comparing the results of mastering knowledge and skills to some far-fetched “average” values. In such a case, the strong student feels no need for daily academic work, and the weak student, feeling doomed, has no desire for it. If the student does not understand the significance of the learning material, then the selectively working subconscious mind helps him to forget unnecessary material rather quickly right after receiving a grade. In this case, the consistency in mastering the basics of knowledge is violated, and each new material appears as if detached from the previous one, independent and even contrived.
3. Incorporation of elements of active leisure into the process of lessons
Where can be used elements of physical education besides the physical education lesson itself – in other lessons and breaks: Fizkultminuta, Fizkultpause, dynamic (mobile) breaks. Such an active recreation to solve a number of problems: the prevention of early mental fatigue and recovery of mental performance by activation of the brain circulation and the switching of attention; elimination of congestion in the circulation and respiratory system exercises in deep breathing and rhythmic alternation of contractions and relaxation of the muscles providing accommodation eyes; elimination of the adverse effects of long-term stretching and relaxation of the back muscles responsible for posture, etc.
4. Providing the necessary hygienic conditions in classrooms
Lighting and air characteristics in the sports hall, temperature regime. All this is sufficiently fully regulated by relevant sanitary and hygienic norms.
The traditional system of physical education which is based on the program recommended (I underline – not obligatory, but recommended) by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation is designed for a certain provision of premises, specialized equipment and implements. In the absence of such conditions the programme becomes unrealizable and the physical education teacher shifts the burden of its implementation to the standards offered in the programme, i.e. actually shifts the burden of responsibility for the effectiveness of physical education from himself to the students. Moreover, given the prevailing attitude in our education towards standards oriented towards the “average” student, they themselves, in their current interpretation, are the most important factor not in educating students in physical education, but in alienating them from it. At the same time, the solution of this issue, and on the basis of individual reference points, does not cause any fundamental difficulties.
Many people are already used to the expression “health-saving technology”, although they understand it in their own way. Some introduce the educational program “Health Lessons”, others organize competitions in classes, some use a universal program recommended by the Ministry of Education, others are limited to phyto tea and vitamin salads, etc.
This activity at school has several directions: providing a safe school environment; organization of the educational process in such a way that it is not harmful to health; the use of techniques appropriate to the age and capabilities of the students; the correct organization of motor training and physical fitness work; formation of the value of health and a healthy lifestyle; interaction with medical institutions, analysis of health and accounting of the results on its saving.
The main goal of the work of physical education teachers – to ensure that the pupil has the opportunity to maintain health during the period of schooling. For this purpose it is necessary to:
– To form in students the necessary knowledge, abilities and skills on a healthy way of life;
– Teach students how to use this knowledge in everyday life;
– To teach students methods of mobilization and relaxation and spiritual self-improvement.
The set tasks are solved through:
1) improving the methodology of the lesson,
2) individual work with underachieving and physically developed pupils,
3) correction of knowledge of schoolchildren on the basis of diagnostics of development of abilities and natural gifts,
4) motivation of schoolchildren to learning.
The theory and practice of physical education show convincingly that exercises aimed at the development of endurance (running, jumping, movement games, hiking, orienteering) which contribute to the expansion of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular, respiratory systems, improvement of the central nervous system and thereby improve the overall health and increase the efficiency of the body have a particular importance.
Exempted from physical education classes, as well as children belonging to the preparatory group, should be offered to prepare reports and messages on healthy lifestyle.
In some lessons use questions and tasks to find out whether children understand the basic concepts and rules of “health preservation”:
1.Define the concepts of “Health” and “Healthy Lifestyle.”
2.Name the main components of a healthy lifestyle. How do you implement them in your life?
3. What are 10 reasons to say “No” to drugs?
What are the ways to manage your well-being and performance?
5.How do you breathe?
– with your mouth
– Neither one is worse or better than the other.
Exercise in the classroom, participation in competitions, in a word, physical education is one of the foundations of our health.
It is physical education teachers must help children get rid of slouching shoulders and hollow chest, to develop their strength, speed, flexibility, agility.
This is especially important in today’s environment with the sharply deteriorating environmental conditions and increased stress levels.
However, there are several typical problems in the teaching of physical education, forcing teachers to turn to the experience of their colleagues, to innovative ideas, to science.
The main problems can be considered to be the following:
1. Low authority of the subject
2. Poor material and technical basis
3. Overloaded halls.
To increase the prestige of the subject, a new approach to physical education at school is needed which combines physical education lessons and sports extracurricular activities into a single whole.
Physical exercise, aimed at mastering the correct walking, running, jumping, throwing, balance skills allow you to organize the work of children in the main and preparatory groups, taking into account the dosage of physical activity and age characteristics of students, to form in them vital motor skills and abilities.
From early spring to late fall, if possible, lessons should be held in the fresh air. All lessons should have a high motor density. At the lessons to use the frontal and group methods. The stream-group method has proved to be the most effective. The creative atmosphere at a lesson to a considerable degree depends on preparation for it, which includes a carefully thought over explanation of the educational material, setting tasks in the sequence of their realization and solution, explanation of the essence of a motor action, interrelation and interdependence of its elements. The material of the lesson should be arranged in a strict logical sequence from simple to complex: relay race is replaced by leading a basketball, imitation exercises – climbing a rope, jumping run – ball passing in pairs.
Widely use different versions of mobile games, based on competitive elements, all kinds of relay games with objects. Use small sports equipment: gymnastic sticks, tennis and stuffed balls, ropes. The independent activity of pupils, making in a hard work elements of the game, a necessary distraction, switching, calming, a temporary rest for regulation of respiratory and cardiovascular functions of the body – all this creates a situation of success, instilling in children confidence in their abilities.
Cards with exercises of three degrees of difficulty can be used for certain sections of the program. If the pupil does not do this or that exercise well enough, he or she gets a task card with a coefficient of difficulty “1”, with a deadline for completion. At the end of the deadline, the student is required to pass the standard or to do the exercise he or she has learned. After that, he receives a card with a factor of “2”, and after the completion of this task – a card with a factor of “3”. In addition, the cards can be with models of movements and descriptions of the order of performing various exercises from all sections of the curriculum. This allows for a differentiated and individualized approach to teaching.
As for health-saving, at the lessons with appropriate content it is necessary to create an idea of physical development and healthy lifestyles, to teach independent exercise using them for leisure and recreation. The children clearly see the connection of the subject “Physical Education” with the preservation of their health and normal physical development in the future.
To ensure an effective health-preserving process it is necessary to observe sanitary-hygienic conditions of training, to ration the teaching load and class schedule, to use health-saving technology, taking into account the age and individual characteristics of the child;
It is necessary to create a favorable emotional and psychological climate at school, and by all means to promote the formation of the needs in healthy lifestyles among students, teachers and parents.
1. to actively introduce health saving technologies in class and extracurricular activities.
2. Systematic upgrading of the EI material and technical base.
3. to find an opportunity to provide pupils of the elementary school with a room for a small sports hall.4. 4. Promotion of a healthy way of life through joint activities of teachers, pupils and parents (health days, visits to swimming pools and ski resorts, weekend hikes).