In the eighteenth century France _________________. Its population reached ____ million, about three times that of England. France was second only to __________ in economic development. Not uncommon were large capitalist manufactories, spread the use of machinery and new technology. The turnover of French foreign trade increased by __ times.
The only thing pulling the country back was _____________ _____________. This was due to the slow penetration of ____________________, the backwardness of technology, peasant smallholdings, and the constant discontent of the peasants. Land from the point of view of the law remained the property of ____________, to whom the peasants had to pay (in cash or in kind) for the use of the land. In turn, many provincial nobles in the face of rising prices _______________ and increased pressure on the peasants.
All estates of the kingdom demonstrated their interest in ______________: the clergy, ___________________ and the third estate – the peasantry. The monarchy also dreamed of reforms. First of all, it had to solve ____________________ the problems that had formed after the reign of the “king-sun”. At first _____________________ managed to rectify the situation: taxes were reduced and production grew. But then the government faced stiff opposition ___________________. The king ordered parliaments dissolved and abolished the sale of offices, which angered the nobility.
After his death the throne passed to his grandson, Louis XVI. At the beginning of his reign the king and his young wife ______________________________ were universally loved. The famous enlightener ____________ was appointed Comptroller General of Finance. His basic idea was that free ______________________ was most useful for economic prosperity. As a result of the abolition of restrictions on the economy, bread became more expensive and riots broke out. Turgot was dismissed, the reforms _________________ of absolutism in France collapsed. From 1787 the country began economic ______________, which caused a decline in grain and wine prices, unemployment in the countryside. Factories began to close, the country was haunted by natural disasters and crop failures. Louis XVI decided to introduce a single _______________________ for all, including the clergy and nobility, but for this it was necessary to convene the states-general. Seeking not to quarrel with the third estate, the king granted its demand for a doubling of ______________, which proved to be a fateful decision for him.
_____________________ The sessions of the States-General opened at Versailles. Everyone was waiting for reforms, and the king expected only the approval of new taxes. Then the third estate decided on an open _________: it declared itself a National Assembly and then ________________________ an assembly, promising to establish a new state system in the country. Some dreamed that the fall of the Old Order would enable them to make a career; others hoped to limit the monarchy, to bring it under control, and to turn it into a semblance of the English one. It seemed possible to do this quickly, painlessly and bloodlessly.