In the practice of physical education the following methods of organization of students at the lesson are applied.
1. The frontal method is characterized by performance of the same task by the whole class irrespective of forms of formation of pupils (in columns, several rows, in a circle).
This method is widely used in all parts of a lesson, but mainly in preparatory and final. However it is necessary to aspire to use a frontal method as much as possible in the main part. Thus the high motor density is provided (it is possible to have time to make more at the expense of increase in time directly to motor activity of students) that is very essential.
The frontal method is successfully used in the management of homogeneous activity of pupils, not requiring insurance, for example, when learning and improving the technique of performing high and low start in running for short distances, a number of the simplest acrobatic exercises (somersaults, rolls, etc.), in the development of technical methods of playing volleyball in pairs (ball passing, etc.).
2. The group method provides simultaneous performance of different teacher’s tasks in several groups.
Division of students into groups and determining the content of tasks shall be carried out taking into account gender, fitness level and other characteristics (for example, according to height and weight indicators in basketball, wrestling lessons).
This method is used mainly in middle and high schools. But its application requires special preparation of assistants of the most prepared pupils and their advance briefing on the material of the forthcoming lesson.
The individual method consists in the fact that students are offered individual tasks, which are performed independently. As a rule, individual tasks are intended for pupils who differ significantly from the basic class in their preparedness, peculiarities and abilities, and sometimes in their state of health. The method is widely used in sports games and mainly in high school.
4. The circular method involves consecutive performance of a series of tasks (exercises) by pupils at specially prepared places (“stationsª), usually located in a circle of the hall or sports ground.
Usually the circle includes 4 to 10 exercises (“stationsª). At each “stationª one type of exercise or motor action is performed. Their composition is chosen with the expectation of the complex development of physical qualities and increase the functional abilities of the body. The whole circle is carried out from 1 to 3 times without interval or with a certain rest interval between “stationsª. The method is used in middle and high school.
METHODS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION (specific and general pedagogical).
STRICTLY REGULATED Exercise METHODS (specific)
The main methodological direction in the process of physical education is the strict regulation of exercises. The essence of the methods of strictly regulated exercises lies in the fact that each exercise is performed in a strictly defined form and with a precisely defined load.
Methods of teaching motor actions.
The method of holistic-constructive exercise. Used at any stage of training. Its essence is that the technique of a motor action is learned from the very beginning in its integral structure without being broken down into separate parts. The whole method enables one to master structurally simple movements (for example, running, simple jumps, developmental exercises, etc.).
With the holistic method it is possible to master separate parts, elements or phases not in isolation, but in the general structure of the movement, by emphasizing the pupils’ attention on the necessary parts of the technique.
Explosive-constructive method. Applied at the initial stages of training. Breaking down an integral motor action (mainly with a complex structure) into separate phases or elements, learning them one after another and then combining them into a single whole.
Method of conjugate influence. Used mainly in the process of improving the learned motor actions to improve their qualitative basis, i.e. effectiveness. Its essence lies in the fact that the technique of a motor action is improved under conditions requiring an increase of physical effort. For example, an athlete throws a weighted javelin or discus in training, jumps in a long jump with a weighted belt etc. In this case, both movement technique and physical abilities are improved simultaneously.
Methods of bringing up physical qualities.
Methods of strict regulation, used to bring up physical qualities are different combinations of loads and rest. They are aimed at achieving and consolidating adaptive restructuring in the body. The methods of this group can be divided into methods with standard and non-standard (variable) loads.
The methods of standard exercise are mainly aimed at achieving and fixing adaptational restructuring in the body. Standard exercise can be continuous and intermittent (interval).
The method of standard intermittent exercise is a continuous muscular activity without changes in intensity (as a rule, moderate). Its most typical varieties are: a) uniform exercise (for example, long-term running, swimming, skiing, rowing and other types of cyclic exercise); b) standard flow exercise (for example, repeated continuous performance of elementary gymnastic exercises).
The standard-interval exercise method is usually a repetitive exercise where the same load is repeated many times. There may be different rest intervals between repetitions.
Variable exercise methods. These methods are characterized by directional changes in load in order to achieve adaptive changes in the body. In this case exercises with progressive, varying and decreasing loads are used.
The main varieties of the variable exercise method are the following methods.
Variable-Continuous Exercise Method. It is characterized by muscular activity performed in a mode with varying intensity. The following varieties of this method are distinguished:
a) variable exercise in cyclic movements (variable running, “fartlek”, swimming and other types of movements with varying speed);
b) Variable-interval exercise – a series of complex gymnastic exercises of different load intensity.
The method of alternating-interval exercise. It is characterized by the presence of different rest intervals between loads.
In addition to the above, there is another group of methods of generalized influence in the form of continuous and interval exercises in circular training.
The circular method is a sequence of specially selected exercises that influence on different muscle groups and functional systems as a continuous or interval work. For each exercise a place is defined which is called a “station”. Usually there are 8 to 10 “stations” in a circle. At each of them a person does one of the exercises (for example, pull-ups, squats, push-ups, jumps, etc.) and goes around from 1 to 3 times (Fig. 5).
This method is used for education and improvement of almost all physical qualities.
The essence of the game method is that the motor activity of pupils is organized on the basis of the content, conditions, and rules of the game.
The main methodological features of the game method are :
1) the game method provides a comprehensive, integrated development of physical qualities and improvement of motor abilities and skills, as in the process of the game they appear not in isolation, and in close interaction;
2) the presence of competitive elements in the game requires considerable physical effort from pupils, which makes it an effective method of education of physical abilities;
3) Observance of conditions and rules of the game in conditions of competition enables a teacher to purposefully form moral qualities in pupils: a sense of mutual aid and cooperation, self-discipline, willfulness,
4. the fun, emotional and attractive factor of the game method helps to form a stable positive interest and active motivation for physical exercises in the pupils.
THE COMPETITIVE METHOD
The competitive method is a way of performing exercises in the form of competitions. The essence of the method lies in the use of competitions as a means of improving the level of fitness of the students. A prerequisite of the competitive method is the readiness of students to perform those exercises in which they must compete.
The competitive method allows:
stimulate the maximum manifestation of motor abilities and identify the level of their development;
to reveal and evaluate the quality of the mastery of motor actions
to provide the maximum physical load;
promote upbringing of volitional qualities.
GENERAL PEDAGOGICAL METHODS USED IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION
1. Didactic storytelling. Represents a presentation of teaching material in narrative form. Its purpose is to provide a general, rather broad idea of a particular motor action or complete motor activity.
In elementary school, especially in grades I-II, physical exercise classes are interesting (emotionally) if they are conducted in the form of “motor, didactic stories”: Individual actions-episodes are consistently unfolded according to the story of the teacher. These actions are united by a general story which children accompany with actions accessible to their imagination and motor experience.
2. Description. It is a way to create an idea of an action in pupils. The description includes a clear, expressive, figurative disclosure of signs and properties of objects, their size, location in space, forms, information on the nature of the phenomena and events. The description informs students mainly of the factual material, says what to do, but does not indicate why one should do it. It is applied basically at creation of the initial representation or at studying relatively simple actions when pupils may use their knowledge and motor experience.
3. Explanation. The method is a consistent, logically rigorous presentation of complex issues by a teacher, for example, concepts, laws, rules, etc. Practically, an explanation is characterized by proof of statements, argumentativeness of statements, strict logical consistency of statement of facts and generalizations.
In physical education explanation is used to familiarize students with what and how they should do when performing an educational task. When explaining widely used sports terminology specific to this section of the program (athletics, gymnastics, etc.). The use of terms makes the explanation more concise
4. Conversation. Question-and-answer form of mutual exchange of information between the teacher and students.
5. Debriefing is a form of a conversation between a teacher and students after performing a certain motor task, participating in competitions, game activities, etc., during which an analysis and evaluation of the results achieved are performed and ways of working further to improve the ones achieved are outlined.
6. A lecture is a systematic, comprehensive, consistent presentation of a certain theme (problem).
7. Instruction is a precise, specific statement by a teacher of a proposed task for a student.
8. Comments and remarks. While performing the task or immediately following it, the teacher briefly evaluates the quality of performance or points out errors. Remarks may refer to all students, to one group, or to one student.
9. Orders, commands, instructions – the basic means of operative management of pupils’ activity in the classroom.
An instruction is a verbal instruction by a teacher at a lesson that has no definite form (standard word combinations, unchanging phrases). The orders are given for fulfillment of any action (“turn to face the windows”, “line up along the wall”, etc.), exercises, for preparation of the places of classes, equipment for cleaning the gym, etc. Orders are used mainly in the elementary school.
Command has a certain form, a set order of delivery and the exact content. Command language is a special form of verbal influence on students in order to encourage them to immediately unconditionally perform or stop certain actions.
Instructions are verbal influences with the purpose of making appropriate corrections in case of incorrect execution of a motor action (for example, “faster,” “higher swing,” etc.). Instructions are most often used in elementary school.
Methods of Visualization
The method of direct visualization. Designed to create in pupils a correct idea of the technique of performing a motor action (exercise). A direct demonstration of movements by a teacher or one of the students must always be combined with methods of using words, which rules out blind, mechanical imitation.
The methods of mediated visualization create additional opportunities for perception of motor actions by students with the help of an objective image. These include: demonstration of visual aids, educational videos and movies, felt-tip drawings on a special board, sketches made by the students, the use of different moulages (reduced models of the human body), etc.
Visual aids allow us to focus the attention of the students on the static positions and sequential change of phases of movements.
By means of video films, it is possible to slow down the movement being demonstrated, to stop at any phase and comment on it as well as to repeat it several times.
Drawings with felt-tip pens on a special board are an operative method of demonstrating individual elements of physical exercise techniques and tactical actions in competitive sports.
Sketches made by pupils in the form of figures allow expressing graphically their own understanding of the structure of a motor action.
Models (models of a human body) allow a teacher to demonstrate to students the specifics of a movement action (for example, the technique of running at different distances, techniques of crossing the bar in a high jump from a split-second jump, techniques of landing in a long jump from a split-second jump, etc.).
Methods of directional perception of a motor action are directed at the organization of perception of signals from working muscles, ligaments or separate parts of the body.
1) guided assistance of the teacher when performing a motor action (for example, guiding the hand of the students by the teacher when teaching the final effort in throwing a small ball at a distance);
2) performance of exercises at a slower tempo;
3) fixation of positions of the body and its parts at certain moments of a motor action (for example, fixation of the position of body links before performing the final effort in throwing);
4) Use of special training devices, which allow feeling the position of the body at different moments of a movement.
Methods of urgent information. These are intended for the teacher and the trainees to obtain, with the help of various technical devices (strain gauges, electric goniometers, photoelectronic devices, light and sound controllers, electric targets, etc.) urgent and prelaminar information after or during the performance of motor actions respectively in order to correct them as necessary or to maintain the given parameters (tempo, rhythm, effort, amplitude, etc.).