Purpose of the training: to increase tolerance and empathy, prevention of conflicts in interpersonal relations of students.
Objectives of bullying prevention training:
– Reducing aggression and hostile reactions of adolescents;
– developing the skill of responding constructively in a conflict;
– promotion of social well-being;
– optimization of interpersonal and intergroup relations;
– changing perceptions of oneself and relationships with others.
– elimination of a psychologically traumatic and socially dangerous situation;
– Integration of “outcast” children into the class
In organizing this activity, the following principles must be observed
– activity of the group participants;
– an exploratory attitude;
– partner communication;
– participation can only be voluntary;
– participants are given full information about the purposes and ways of carrying out training;
– at carrying out of training all precautions against physical and mental traumas are taken.
Logistical support: chairs for the number of participants in the group, a sheet of wattan, with a tree trunk drawn in advance, colored stickers, glue, an A3 sheet for rules, a vessel and a set of colored pebbles.
The first block (informational)
The goal: to reveal the signs of bullying, to define the opportunities for positive interaction, to evaluate various behavioral strategies.
Course of the session
Stage 1. The organizational moment (the mood for work).
The teacher-psychologist: Hello guys. Look, what a wonderful day it is today! The sun is shining outside! Let’s create a sunny mood in our class. And to make it work, let’s turn to our comrade or neighbor and smile the most radiant smile! Wonderful! Now it’s warm and sunny for us, too, just like outside.
Warm-up. “(5 minutes).
The teacher-psychologist: – We all have our favorite activities, but sometimes we do not even suspect the interests of those who are not our friends, although we may know these people for years. Let’s pay attention to our classmates. Continue the phrase: “I love…..”
Each participant, in turn, tells what he or she likes to do. The psychologist emphasizes that there are different interests.
Stage 2. Introduction to the theme of the lesson. (20 min.)
The teacher-psychologist: – Guys, now I will show you a fragment from a fairy tale and you will guess its name.
The teacher-psychologist: – So, what is this fairy tale? Of course, it’s a fairy tale about an ugly duckling. And let’s remember what happened next.
Answers of pupils.
The teacher-psychologist: – You remember this fairy tale very well. That’s right, the duckling got hurt.
Teacher-psychologist: – Guys, tell us, what feelings do you have toward the duckling? Do you want to protect him from the attacks of other birds? Why do you think they hurt the duckling?
Answers of children.
The teacher-psychologist: – That’s right, he was not like the other birds in this bird’s yard, and most importantly, they did not like him. Unfortunately, such phenomenon happens among people. It is especially common in children’s groups. Children can also hurt other children who they do not like. Only these children do not always understand the seriousness of their actions. They think they are just playing, laughing and joking. But this is not fun at all. Namely, when a person is deliberately brought to tears, when a person is consistently and systematically teased, when his/her belongings are taken away, hidden and damaged, when a person is pushed, pinched and hit, when a person is called names and emphasized ignoring – this is called “bullying”. And it is unacceptable.
Bullying is a disease. There are diseases that affect not people, but classes, companies. It’s like if a person doesn’t wash their hands, they risk catching an infection and getting sick. If a class doesn’t keep its relationships clean, it gets sick with violence. Any disease needs to be treated.
Teacher-psychologist: Do you think: bullying can be stopped or it was and will be? What can each of us do to avoid such situations and what if they always happen?
The teacher-psychologist: – That’s good! You have made a lot of good points. I want to draw your attention to the fact that school bullying, bullying, aggression is called “bullying”. Bullying is systematic aggression, bullying. There are different types of bullying: direct and hidden.
Covert bullying involves ignoring the student, boycotting them, excluding them from the relationship, intentionally spreading negative rumors, etc.
Direct bullying includes direct physical aggression, sexual or psychological violence. Physical bullying includes deliberate pushing, hitting, kicking, beating, inflicting other bodily harm, etc. Psychological bullying is related to the action on the psyche, causing psychological trauma by verbal insults or threats, harassment, intimidation, which intentionally causes emotional suffering. We should separately note cyberbullying as harassment by means of communication on the Internet, mobile communication.
As you and I can see, there are always several participants in bullying:
– the leader
– the aggressor,
– schoolchildren participating in bullying (joining the leader),
– the child
– Witnesses reinforcing the bullying (children who take the side of the attackers, laugh, show support for/encourage the attackers, just gather around and watch),
– Outsiders (children who avoid bullying situations by not taking sides)
-defenders (children who take an obvious stand against bullying, either actively confronting their attackers and doing something to stop the bullying, or calming down, supporting the victim).
Educational Psychologist: I suggest that you rate your personal contribution to the class disease called bullying. Let one point mean “I never take part in this”, two points – “sometimes I join, but then I regret”, three points – “I did, I do and will do bullying; this is great. Mark it on a piece of absorbent cotton.
Children evaluate themselves.(5 min.)
The psychologist: I am so glad that none of you think that bullying is good and right. Even those of you who did it were sorry afterwards. This is wonderful, so it will not be hard for us to heal.
The second block of classes (practical).
Goal: To increase tolerance and prevention of conflicts in interpersonal relations of students.
Stage 3: Workshop
Exercise “Love and anger” (10 minutes)
Instructions to the pupils: “Imagine that you are now talking to someone you are angry at. Tell that person what you are angry about. Maybe he didn’t keep his promise or didn’t do what you expected him to do. Talk to him or her in a way that no one can hear. Say clearly and precisely what it was that made you angry (1-2 minutes).
Tell the person you were talking to what you like about him or her, as specifically as possible. For example: “Fedya, I really like that when I come home from school, you rush to me and joyfully hug me.” (1-2 min.)
Think about who in the group makes you angry sometimes. Imagine going up to that person and telling them clearly and concretely why they made you angry (1 min). Mentally walk up to that person again and tell him or her what you like about him or her (1 min). Open your eyes and look around the circle. Look intently at each other.
Share the feelings and emotions you experienced during the exercise. Tell what you experienced in your imagination.
– How do you feel when you don’t tell the other person that you are angry with them? How do you feel when you report it?
– Can you stand it if someone tells you that they are angry with you?
– Are there people who you are never angry with?
– Are there people who are never angry with you?
– Why is it so important to say exactly what made you angry?
– When does anger go away faster – when it’s hushed up or when you talk about it?
Recommendations. If someone makes hurtful remarks about someone present or absent, you should immediately demand that they say something positive to that person. It is important to make sure that children express their anger or resentment without making generalizations or evaluations, i.e., not saying things like, “You are a fool! It is acceptable to express feelings about another child only in the form of descriptions of facts and feelings, for example: “I am offended when you draw with a felt-tip pen on my desk.
The game “Letting off steam” (15 min.)
Instructions to students:
Participants break into pairs and stand across from each other. The first person in the pair pulls his or her hand forward. The second person in the pair tries to lower their partner’s hand by pushing it down from above. The first participant should try to hold his or her hand while saying: “I’m strong.” Now do the same thing, but say, “I’m weak. Switch.
1.When did you find it easier to hold your hand?
2.Why do you think it was?
3) What kind of feelings did you have?
Exercise “Show the situation” (15 min.)
Participants are divided into pairs. Give each pair a card with a brief description of a conflict situation. The task is to prepare and show the situation described. No talking is allowed, only facial expressions, movements, etc. The task of the other participants is to determine which conflict is described on the card. The pairs are given (2 min.) to prepare.
Questions for discussion:
– How did you feel when you presented the situations?
– Is it always clear what is happening if we just look at the situation?
– What did you want to do the most?
– Why is it so important to say exactly what is going on?
– When is it easier to help in a situation that might happen?
Exercise “Getting rid of anger and aggressiveness” (5 minutes).
Instructions for the students: “Sit back, relax, take 3-4 deep breaths and close your eyes. Imagine you are in a small exhibition. On it there are pictures of people in which you are angry, who make you angry, you were offended, or did you an injustice. Walk around the exhibit, look at the portraits. Stop at any of them. Recall a conflict of some sort with that person. Try to see yourself mentally in that situation … Imagine expressing your feelings to the person you are angry at. Don’t hold back, don’t be shy in your expressions and actions, say whatever you want to, do whatever your feelings prompt this person to do. If you have finished the exercise, give a sign – nod your head. Breathe in 3 or 4 times and open your eyes.
Questions for discussion:
– Share your experience with the group. What was easy and what was difficult about this exercise? What did you like and what did you not like?
– Which of the people around you entered your gallery? Who did you focus on?
– What situation did you imagine? Describe it.
– How did your state of mind change during the exercise?
– How are the feelings at the beginning and the end of the exercise different?
Stage 4. Completion. (10 min.)
I suggest you write down a set of rules that everyone will follow.
– We don’t fight with our fists.
– You don’t insult each other.
– You don’t look indifferently when two people are fighting. They are separated.
– They don’t make fun of other people’s flaws.
– Don’t spoil other people’s things…..
(Etc., children suggest rules)
Teacher-psychologist: – Now let everyone put their signature under the rules as evidence and agreement to follow them. We will hang these rules in the classroom and keep them in mind. You can’t divide the world only into black or white, good or bad, the world has many shades, so everyone has positive and negative character traits. But if we show tolerance, sensitivity, kindness to each other, it is easy to find common ground even with those who are not like us.
Today let’s grow our own tree of tolerance, which will remind us of the qualities that help people to communicate positively.
You have stickers – tree leaves on which you can write those qualities that help you communicate with people, and I have the trunk of the tolerance tree on the board (children write and glue the leaves and then read them out).
– What did you like about the lesson?
– What can you take away from our conversation in the class?
– In one word, how did you feel during the session?
Summary of the lesson.
The teacher-psychologist: -This tree will stay with you and may it bear new fruits and shoots of your successes in tolerant communication with people!
And I also want to give you a special vessel. We are going to use it to introduce a “bullying counter” – everyone who has been bullied today and has seen something that looks like violence can put a pebble in it. By the number of pebbles, we will be able to easily determine how much better this day was than the previous day.
Exercise “Thank you for a beautiful day.”
Instruction. Please stand in a general circle. I want to invite you to participate in a small ceremony that will help us express our friendship and gratitude to each other. We will take turns turning to each other, shaking hands and saying, “Thank you for a nice day!”
Preventive activities will create a safe psychological space in the educational organization.
Stable benevolent relations in a group of adolescents are formed.
Skills of constructive reaction in a conflict are acquired, aggression decreases, and self-perceptions change.
“Rejected” children will be painlessly included in the process of work and development of the class collective. Social well-being is improved.