At the beginning of the XXI century in the humanities the problems of the influence of youth subcultures on society and the formation of personality have not been analyzed enough. And if earlier it was due primarily to the lack of study of these problems, today it is primarily due to the lack of developments. In particular, sociology of youth and its separate directions are still in search of adequate socio-philosophical concepts of historical development and social structure of the modern world.
This has led to the relevance of the topic of this work: “Culture and Subculture. Specifics of youth subculture”. The phenomenon of youth subculture is a field of unlimited research, as it is a problem of social order, related to solving many problems of human development, and, in particular, the formation of its norms and values.
Therefore, the purpose of the work is to identify the mechanism of formation of youth subculture and its impact on the life of society. Proceeding from the goal, the following tasks were defined:
1.To identify the peculiarities of youth subculture.
2. To study foreign and domestic researches on this problem.
Proceeding from the goal and objectives of the research, we built a hypothesis: youth subculture, being, on the one hand, a reflection of interests, inclinations, value orientations of a certain group of young boys and girls, on the other hand, directly affects the process of formation and development of personality of its members, thereby on formation of their norms and values.
The object of the study is a subculture of modern youth.
Subject of the study: the mechanism of formation of youth subculture and its impact on society. The work consists of an introduction, two chapters, a conclusion, a list of references, an appendix.
Methods: study of theoretical sources, observation, questioning, analysis, generalization.
The practical relevance of research in this field of sociology is necessary to resolve the crisis that Russia is experiencing today. And the connection of such aspects of youth sociology as youth subculture and youth aggression is obvious. Only thorough and systematic research in the field of sociology of youth can help us understand the causes of generational conflict in our society. It is necessary to understand the essence of youth quest, to get away from unconditional condemnation of what youth culture brings with it, and to approach the phenomena of modern youth life in a differentiated way.
2.The Notion of Subculture.
Subculture (Lat. sub – under and cultura – culture; subculture) is a concept (term) in sociology, anthropology and culturology, denoting a part of society’s culture that differs in its behavior from the prevailing majority, as well as social groups of bearers of that culture. A subculture may differ from the dominant culture in its own system of values, language, manner of behavior, clothing and other aspects.
There are subcultures formed on national, demographic, professional, geographic and other bases. In particular, subcultures are formed by ethnic communities that differ in their dialect from the linguistic norm. Another well-known example is youth subcultures.In 1950, the American sociologist David Riesman in his research derived the concept of subculture as a group of people deliberately selecting the style and values preferred by a minority. A more thorough analysis of the phenomenon and the concept of subculture was carried out by the British sociologist and media scientist Dick Hebdidge[en] in his book “Subculture: The Meaning of Style. According to him, subcultures attract people with similar tastes who are not satisfied with generally accepted standards and values. French sociologist Michel Mafessoli used the concept of “urban tribes” to refer to youth subcultures in his writings. The Russian ornithologist Viktor Dolnik used the concept of “clubs” in his book The Naughty Child of the Biosphere. In the USSR, the term “informal associations of youth” was used to refer to members of youth subcultures, hence the slang word “non-formals. Sometimes the slang word “hangout” is used to refer to a subcultural community.
3.History of the emergence of subculture.
Informal (deviant from socially accepted norms, asocial) behavior of young people first came to the attention of scientists in the United States of America in the 30-50s. In the 1930s and 1950s in the United States of America. Sociologists, psychologists, and lawyers studied the emergence and functioning of youth gangs in big cities, primarily Chicago (many of you will remember the hugely successful American film, Chicago Gangs, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, who was the world’s favorite girl). The film dealt with non-normative (i.e. non-standard from the point of view of social norms) behavior of young people. Naturally, due to the specificity of the genre, the film romanticizes the images and situations, while the researchers analyzed their causes and essence. Studies have shown that members of such gang associations live according to their own rules and norms, which are a deviation from the basic socio-cultural norm. It was to them, to these associations, that the concept of “subculture” was first applied. In this concept, a subculture is a community where atypical (“asocial”) behavior is considered conformist, that is, the norm. A subculture began to be understood as such a subsystem of society which is not recognized by society as a whole, above all, by the state authorities. As we can see, initially the approach to subcultures was purely sociological. Subsequently, the interest in this phenomenon moved into the broader sphere of humanitarian interests – the sphere of cultural studies.
After World War II, the term “youth subculture” entered the sociological usage and began to be applied not only to criminal formations, but also to all cultural phenomena related to youth. It was noted that increased prosperity led to an increase in the purchasing power of young people, and this, in turn, gave rise to a new, independent market of goods and services oriented toward the young buyer. This has been called the “breakthrough of teenage culture. However, during this period there was little deviation from the basic norms and values of society among young people, and many researchers denied the existence of the concept of “youth culture” on this basis, arguing that powerful means of influence and control over the lifestyle of the younger generation are concentrated in the hands of the older generation.
But those who saw teenageism as the beginning of a new intracultural process were right. The production of widely available “cultural goods” (pop music, fashion, etc.) led to the fact that teenageism became an international style-movement, producing and consuming not only a variety of fashion and music. The youth subculture gradually differentiated, various movements appeared in it, which were connected not only and not so much with fashion and music, but with socio-political views – this process embraced culture in the 60-70s. Then they started talking about the “conflict of generations,” and as a consequence, there was a sharp increase in interest in studies that study this problem.
Vanilla Girls or Vanilki is a new subculture, which emerged more recently (compared to all youth subcultures, only a few years ago). And this trend has covered only girls. The main distinguishing feature from other youth movements is the constant carrying of a camera (usually a SLR), in all places. Also these girls are characterized by increased emotionality and sensuality. With a camera, Vanilla girls convey their emotional mood, and this is the only way they can do it. Most of the time they spend in only two places: 1) on the street, making new pictures, and 2) in social networks (such as Vkontakte, FaceBook) – where they share photos, and as a consequence, emotional experiences.If we touch the psychological characteristics, they are very vulnerable. If you do not share their fantasies, the offense can last for many months. Also, such girls are very naive, like a 14-year-old child. In other words, we can say that these are romantic girls who are constantly flying in the clouds.
Vanilla girls like to maintain their status by constantly standing out, such as constantly drinking coffee and cigarettes. By and large, this is done for show, rather than because of a real addiction to caffeine and nicotine. A little later to the way of life, added the “habit” of sitting on window sills, looking into the distance and dreaming about something romantic.Unlike other youth subcultures, they like to read literature, giving preference to Western authors. And books are read, exclusively of romantic content, nothing else within this movement is recognized (concerning literature).In music preference is given to the style Indie and BritPop, because they are able to convey romance (vanilla) mood and emotions.
Subculture Gopniks, emerged in the last years of the existence of the USSR. In their ideology and behavior, are extremely close to hooligans. From other youth subcultures, the Gopniks are distinguished by prison slang, increased violence and a low level of IQ. The term Gopnik itself originated from the word “Gop Stop” – sudden robbery. The robbery itself (“divorce”) proceeds in the following way – there is a conversation with the victim, according to the so-called concepts, after psychological pressure, the victim gives the thug his cell phone and money. If this does not happen, then physical force is used. What is characteristic of the mentality of this subculture, attacks are not committed one by one, at least two people are involved. Musically, the preference is given to the style of Chance, it is worth noting that the songs are not of French origin, but of prison origin. In such songs, sings about real life and concepts, by which each person must live.Attitudes towards other subcultures, goes aggressively, ie long hair causes in a gopnik aggression. Fashion-generated movement of Emo, Goths, Rappers, are completely hated by gopniks.In appearance, to determine the most Gopnik, is not a big problem. They wear tracksuits and short haircuts. This is a constant part of 80% of the adherents of this subculture. Often they are called by another term – Gop.
Gopstop movement was relevant to 2005-2008. Later, went down, that is a huge mass that had previously had this subculture is no longer observed. Much activity of this informal stratum, can be observed in underdeveloped cities with a small population line. From large regional centers, an intensified displacement began, although it is still impossible to completely eradicate this relic of the Soviet Union.
It is important to note that a person who has been living in these circles since childhood can fall under the influence of this subculture. The age of the Gopniks is incalculable. There are individuals who at the age of 11 are already adopting the whole system of values of this low social layer, as well as the representatives of 30-40 years old who are deeply rooted in “the concepts”.
Of all existing subcultures, Cyber Goths are the youngest and most evolved. Approximately, the origins of the origin comes in 1990. It is worth noting that the accurate classification and definition of the informal movement, there is certainly some features that distinguish this direction from others, but by the profound misconception of many – nothing in common with the usual subculture Goths, they have. The very origins were taken precisely from the Gothic movement, but in a short time was completely reoriented. The original direction was narrowly focused, and the new followers who tried to develop their movement with all their might – it was not to their taste. Herein lies the answer to the question of why such a radical difference is now visible, even to the untrained eye.
Like most subcultures, the Cyber Goths were formed because of musical trends, in particular the Noise style, and Industrial, which were radically different from other existing styles of the time period. As a musical basis, it is preferred. If briefly touch the description of this style it will be clear that in addition to the guitar sounds and standard rock songs, it is actively used samples (sounds created with the help of electronic instruments, i.e. computer and other special equipment, oriented for musicians).
You can not ignore the appearance of the subculture as a whole has nothing in common with other existing species. As the main hairstyles are used: dreadlocks, hair colored in different colors, not uncommon in the representatives of this movement and Mohawks, but with the subculture of punk, they have nothing in common. The color scheme ranges from green to black, but mostly used bright. The word Cyber is used for a reason. If you look closely at their appearance, you can see the chips involved as an element of clothing design, ie their own style. Clothing is mostly made up of leather or synthetic material.
Since this is the most modern subculture, the passion for computers is considered here by default. The only thing left of the ideology of the Goths is the belief in the apocalypse (doomsday), which is approaching every day and will affect at least the entire world. The new Cyber Goth movement simply does not have more in common with its original direction.
4.4. New Age.
At the beginning of our millennium, the New Age subculture emerged. Its essence is a spiritual self-improvement. Here read books, and it is believed that the higher the intellectual and spiritual level of man, the higher his status in this subculture. Differences from ordinary people are not only in this, it also touches on religion. The standard religions, Islam, Christianity or Buddhism are completely rejected by them. On the basis of world teachings, each member of New Age creates his own current, mixing the teachings of mystical vices with the rituals of Manism, neo-paganism, or occult currents.
This view of the world and established things has made this movement, an entire alternative religion. Especially the representatives of Christianity reacted fiercely and negatively to it.
Of the music of New Age like to listen to rock in all its forms, but it is on heavy music, the preference does not end, not infrequently as a priority is electronic music. In other words, to call a clear distinction, what listen to representatives of this subculture – is not possible. The styles can be different, for example: Metall, IndieRock, the Crabcore style or the traditional rock of the old wave. In other words – anything, there are no restrictions. Later this direction gave birth to its own musical style. The main difference lies in the lyrics of the songs, namely in the chanting of the future world and the beauty of man, which he inherited from the higher forces. And it is the music of this style that is ideal for meditation.
4.5 The Pedophiles.
Subculture Pedovki (or another name PeNdovki), appeared quite recently, about 2008-2009 year this term is tightly entered the informal party.
Pedovkami call girls (usually under 20 years of age, to be more precise, from 12-17 years – the peak age at which the wave of the youth movement is given). By their appearance, the way they behave they try to combine the “positive” sides of different subcultures, such as Goths, Emo, Punks, and others. In particular, they create an image of a glamorous girl (and it turns out the girl), trying to look to attract as much attention as possible, and if the subculture Cyber Goths – it turns out at least 95%, in fact they have a real look, the pendovki cause at least laughter.
Of all the subcultures of youth, they are one of the youngest and most despised. On the wave of popularity and growth of activity, they go after Emo (if you compare it to a very recent past). In particular, none of these girls will never admit that they are queer. In appearance from the easy to distinguish from the representatives of other movements trends, for example they wear 12 months a year, modern skater shoes and clothing from specialty stores (boardshops), the preference is given to brands such as Fallen. Hands are hung with a variety of cheap bracelets, purchased at McDonald’s, Euroset or Svyaznoy, as well as a large abundance of badges. Also drawing on your own body, with a black marker various expressions or “pictures”.
Among this movement there is an active piercing, with piercing everything possible. They believe that the abundance of piercings on the body symbolizes coolness, although the piercing itself is done to emphasize certain body parts (like cosmetics).Their manner of behavior, they borrowed from the subculture of Emo, ie constant complaints about life, not understood by both family and relatives. They take pictures of themselves, putting gigabytes of their photos on the virtual network. All taunts, reproaches and remarks are simply ignored.They hold their own value system, which supposedly symbolizes their coolness and respect from the people around them.
Since the Pedovki are a fashion movement, they also favor the mainstream in terms of music. They know only popular unofficial bands, and to be more detailed, only the most popular tracks. This approach to music, they need to communicate in their own small circles. However, in spite of their young age, they already listen to heavy music such as BringMe The Horizon (especially their vocalist – a direct embodiment of male beauty), Noize MC, Attack Attack! and other popular bands, and in most cases, heavy music is listened to by necessity, because in their circles light styles are rolling rarely, although with the advent of the Indie rock wave, this situation has changed somewhat. They build their relationships with guys of the same type – pseudo emo boys. Here the preference is given to appearance, as it is necessary to maintain their coolness and image. Copying elements of the images of thrash models.
Like the majority of youth subcultures – faggots drink a lot of alcohol at every opportunity – to get drunk and get drunk at party or in the streets – is considered not that, the standard norm, but a necessary pattern of behavior in their party (company).Whatever you spin, but this is nothing more than posers, who because of their short-sighted mind trying to attract attention and some pseudo respect. The fascination of this movement young people ends as a rule at the age of 17-19 years old, with the arrival of the consciousness of their inferiority and inferiority.
The emergence of the Rastamani subculture (second name Rastafari), occurred around the 1920s. The culture itself, began its spread from the territory of Africa, later covering the Caribbean. The ideology is built around the cult of cannabis (cannabis), the excessive use of this natural product and listening to songs recorded in Reggae style.
The look is very simple but at the same time very catchy, i.e. the usual T-shirts and the image or symbols of cannabis, hand-bound hats or hoodies, dreadlocks. The color scheme in clothing, paraphernalia and symbols is three colors: red, yellow, green. This combination of colors is common throughout the world.It is not uncommon to weave different objects into the hair: balloons, threads, and so on. Most Rastamans wear long hair, emphasizing their attitude towards their subculture. As for reggae in Russia, not every follower of this subculture is familiar with its ideology and system of values. Since Rastafarianism has its origins in Jamaica and Africa, we should deliberately look deeper into the origins. The very origins of the formation lie in the 1930s, when the king of Ethiopia, for the local population, became the man described in the prophecy of the Black Jesus, who must deliver his people from centuries of suffering. The prince’s middle name was Ras Tafari. Later the gap in the pronunciation was removed, and then came the synonym Rastamans, which is very tightly accustomed to the masses.The meaning of the subculture Rastamans is: to smoke marijuana, expand their consciousness, comprehend the meaning of life, not to harm others, to promote reggae in the masses.About the hair – dreadlocks, there is a legend. In the hour of terrible judgment (end of the world), the god Jha will see his followers by this hairstyle, and by the hair will pull them out of the earth into heaven.
In Russia, the most common reggae bands are AlaiOli and JahDivision.
The word ravers subculture is an endless night parties, where the most popular DJ’s perform and electronic dance music is produced from speakers. Young people who liked such entertainment and became the founders of the movement. Rivers is a subculture of partygoers. The source of youth priorities is dance music, and their lifestyle is derived from their idols – musicians. In fact, their carefree life is nothing but partying, with lots of pleasures and a good time.
How did it all begin?
“Rave” translates as mass disco, where DJs perform. In the UK (1988), this trend became a mass phenomenon and by the 90s it had already gained worldwide popularity. At the same time, producers and popular DJs announced that dance electronic music became an alternative replacement for rock and roll. This subsequently contributed to the creation of a mass trend. In the early 90’s there were still closed parties of ravers, which encouraged free and very frank dancing, emancipation was achieved by taking “club” drugs (ecstasy, methamphetamine and ketamine). But by the 2000s, rave-parties in their majority express a protest to the intake of drugs. If you look at the dynamics of growth, over the past ten years, the number of venues for discos has increased, and systematic invitations to popular DJs are massive and a symbol of “coolness”.
What is the essence of the youth subculture?
The raver subculture is somewhat similar to the hippie movement. They are constantly in the whirlpool of events and nightlife entertainment. The bright appearance of the subculture is not a definite goal, it is just one of the ways of self-expression. The ideology of the movement is based on “non-interference”. For example, a true raver would sooner earn money for entertainment than ask his parents for money. This movement is quite often joined by the “acidists”. They give preference to bright colors in clothing, incredible hairstyles, and the meaning of their life is to constantly entertain.
Many youth movements are divided into several distinctive currents, characterizing themselves with unique features. Not an exception and ravers, whose subculture is developing and changing to this day. This is quite normal, because such extraordinary and expressive personalities have certain preferences in clothing and image. It is this quality that contributes to the development of diverse trends, characterized by their unique style and behavior.
In general, the Skinhead subculture is one of the youngest trends. They got their name due to their appearance – a bald (shaved) voice. And the first followers did not come from Nazi Germany, as is commonly claimed today. It began to actively emerge in Germany in the 1960s. Then the first followers were workers from the lower class. It was from England that Skinheads began to actively spread throughout the territory of the globe, by the year 2000, taking over the whole world.
Of the music, the preference is given to hardcore, later nationalist tinge was added to it, which gave birth to a new movement of hardcore bands, characterizing their style as OI.It should be noted that this gave birth not only to this movement, also emerged an anti movement – ANTIFA.
Separately, it should be mentioned that in general the skinhead subculture is aimed at the preservation of the nation, and the modern political system is trying to mix all peoples and nations. This is the main reason why skinheads fight so hard for the purity of their people’s blood.
Not all modern skinheads shave their heads. Most of them cut their hair very short.The swastika began to be used after the era of Adolf Hitler, as a symbol of the movement of their ideology. In the early 1980s, members of this movement, often decorated their bodies with swastika tattoos. During the same period of time, new musical tastes were formed, namely a love for the style of Ska and Reggae, which later changed its lyrical coloring towards the ideas of nationalism.
In Russia, skinheads don’t behave like any other informal youth group. This is especially noticeable in the largest Russian cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg. Though skinheads, just like the majority of informals, assemble in certain places, go to their music concerts and festivals, and wear special paraphernalia, they are not satisfied with a harmless existence as an informal countercultural movement. The current unstable situation in Russia has sharply politicized most Russian skinheads. Instead of being an informal countercultural movement imbued with a spirit of aggression and outrage, they have gradually transformed into an unorganized neo-Nazi political youth movement.
Among other informal youth movements and groups existing today in Russia, the skinhead movement is the most aggressive and criminalized. Skinheads are constant initiators of conflicts and clashes, and most of the illegal actions skinheads commit on the basis of racist ideas and neo-Nazi ideology. Thus, skinheads not only participate in local fights, but also, in passing, fuel fires of ethnic hatred, at precisely the time when it is most painful for Russia. Today, when the number of ethnically motivated crimes in our country has reached record levels, we can affirm that skinheads have the most direct connection to it.
Red skinheads are “Redskins.
Usually “red skinheads” are called “RedSkins. Their movement emerged in the early 1980s as a counterweight to the growing influence of neo-Nazi skinheads. The first Redskins musical group was an OI-band from England associated with the extreme leftist Trotskyist party. This music group called for anti-fascist resistance to the Nazis, who they believed had betrayed the multiracial culture of the “first” proletarian skinheads.
In the mid-1980s, the Redskin movement began to gain strength, groups of “red skinheads” emerged in many European countries. It especially spread in Italy, where the Red Brigades were not yet forgotten. Red skinheads collaborate with punks and left-wing radicals.
Red skinheads call themselves Communists. In reality, despite their use of Soviet symbols, few of them are affiliated with any political party. They prefer the famous revolutionary terrorist Che Guevara to Lenin, and the company of their friends to their party comrades. By joining autonomous groups or creating their own, the Redskins brutally persecute the Skin-Nazis. For this purpose, they often unite with their former enemies, the punks, especially if they are anarchists.
Skinhead Anti-Fascists (SHARP).
The S.H.A.R.P.’s (SkinheadsAgainstRacialPrejudices) movement – Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice – emerged in America in the late 1980s. In 1988, there was a sharp ideological split between neo-Nazi skinheads and everyone else in mostly apolitical American skinhead groups. As a result, there was a sharp split. Some skins joined the Ku Klux Klan and various Nazi groups. Some skins, on the contrary, decided to oppose the growth of fascism, racism and neo-Nazism in the Americas. In 1989, they founded the first organization called SHARP in New York City. In the 1990s, this movement, in addition to America, was gaining popularity in Europe. SHARP was a united front with the Redskins against the Nazi skinheads, denying their affiliation to the skin culture.
Members of the Redskins and SHARP movements do not call skinheads (skinheads) Nazi skinheads, but boneheads (cue ball heads). However, this does not offend the latter; on the contrary, most foreign “right-wing skinheads” prefer to draw a clear distinction between skinheads and skinhead neo-Nazis, calling themselves “bonheads” – billiard balls. However, the SHARP movement eventually abandoned the leftist views of the red skinheads and adopted anti-fascism and anti-racism as its political “creed. The “SHARP Declaration of Principles” reads: “The organization fights for the eradication of fascism and racism not only in the skin movement, but also in society.
Thresh models choose their style based on their protest against the adult world. However, each direction of the protest has its own. Thus, the Thresh style sees its purpose as a struggle against glamour. If you turn for help to the English-Russian dictionary, we can find that the word “trash” is translated as “garbage”, “all types of waste, except scrap metal and food scraps. Thus, trash girls through their appearance seek to clutter today’s fashionable glamorous style, to create an ironic and harsh caricature of it. And what about the thrash young men, you ask. The fact is that young men undoubtedly have the right to their existence in this movement, only their numbers are too small. After all, a real man should not be in the glamour – against such specimens are fighting quite different currents and completely different methods.
Thresh models, like all subcultures, consider an important element of belonging to a movement and a tool of protest, they choose their appearance. In a more generalized sense, Thresh style is everything that is not in fashion today in the general population. So, roughly speaking, if it is relevant to wear klesh, then trash girls will wear tight pants. In order to stand out from the crowd, the youth of this trend will do everything possible – will combine totally incongruous things: leopard print with cartoon shirts, lace and military, cell and stripes, sequins and spikes, eerie skulls and cute flowers, and more butterflies, tiaras, anarchic and satanic symbols …
Also widely and everywhere are used tattoos, piercings (including “tunnels” – wide holes in the ears and not only in them), “snake tongue”. All this brings trash models to the freaks. However, the first are just thrill-seekers, while the latter seek to achieve a very high and important goal – to cause a sense of disgust, shock, confusion and laughter in the common masses. In addition to bright makeup, false eyelashes, painted eyebrows (or their complete absence), the challenge to the glamorous world trash models throws through uneven asymmetrical hair (a la “I fell off the dump truck …”). At the same time, there is a pronounced desire to outdo the rainbow in hair color. Among this trend are popular traditional colors (acid pink, purple, yellow, arctic white) or mixed with each other, as well as “raccoon tail” and “raccoon tail-exotic” (black and white or any other color striped hairdo). Dreadlocks or afro braids are sometimes added to all this for complete chaos.
Thresh models revel in their own appearance (most likely from a lack of public “recognition”). Their favorite activity is to take pictures of themselves at a very close range, in order to show up in all their shocking beauty. The main rule of the trash movement is the absence of any rules. They do not confine themselves to a particular subculture. This is, rather, a way of life. At the same time, any kind of underground music is listened to: punk, ska, emo, hardcore, metal, the same thrash metal (but rarely). However, if any of this suddenly becomes fashionable, then thrash must necessarily be ridiculed (in company with glamour, of course). After all, the basic ideology is a disdain for all that is popular – McDonalds, glossy magazines and those you can see in them, Hollywood movies (representatives of this trend would rather watch with rapture some trashy movie – not because they like it, but just to be). It’s extremely boring (read: disgusting) to be in the Everyman’s World, which is why followers of this trend try to turn the commonplace and the masses inside out, to show how badly, rottenly and uglyly everything is done there.
The Freak subculture was formed in the 20th century in North America. To this day, its followers adhere to one main idea – to stand out among the crowd of people around them. To do this, they use not only clothes, but also use a different behavior and philosophy. The term Freak comes from the English word Freak, which means – strange man. Each follower of this trend creates its own image and in no case does not adhere to public standards.
With the development of informal youth subcultures, changes have affected not only lifestyle and external image. The emergence of Piercing culture in the masses, left a hard imprint on all the Freaks, ie they began to massively pierce themselves all sorts of places, and with the advent and availability of tattoos, many places began to be blocked by various drawings, inscriptions and patterns. Such innovation allowed them to express themselves more vividly. This phenomenon has survived to this day.
Often this subculture is joined by creative people: musicians, actors, artists, writers and other representatives of creative professions. Unlike other modern youth movements, they are not afraid to show their individuality, and if usual informals can’t “challenge the society”, for the Freaks it is an extremely easy task. The name of this subculture has two different interpretations, which completely contradict each other. For example, in one case – it will be an offensive swear word, and in another high praise.There are talented and famous people in these ranks, the most striking proof of these words – the artist Vrubel. Not only has he received worldwide recognition, but he also contributed to society by dyeing his hair green.
As for fashion and fashion trends, these people, if they are influenced by them, then at the very minimal level. In 99.99% of cases they create their own fashion, or completely contradict the latest developments of fashion designers each season. It’s also worth mentioning, that in Western countries the freak-culture is much more developed than in our country. First of all, this is due to a completely different attitude. In the same America they love, but in Russia on the contrary despise and oppress. But in spite of our public protest against such “innovations”, they are not becoming less, rather the opposite – the number of followers is growing every year.Among the Russian rock bands who adhere to this trend, it should be noted the group C-FILE.
The subculture of fans (or soccer fans) was formed in the early 1930’s, after Football has become a popular game around the world, the number of followers of this trend has grown exponentially. So history has it that each soccer club had its own staff of fans, who supported their favorite team at games and tournaments.The main feature that distinguishes this subculture from others is the minimal idealism – everyone can become a soccer fan, and it does not require any significant effort from him.
Later, fans began to show an increasingly criminal nature, destroying everything in their path after soccer matches. As soccer itself grew in popularity, more and more soccer clubs were founded and new people joined. This led to a rivalry between fans, hence the ancient confrontation that lasts to this day.
The fans are especially active after big soccer matches, when almost everything is blown out in the nearby areas of the stadium. The forces of law and order, even in spite of all efforts, can’t restrain the aggression and heightened emotionality of the representatives of this subculture. And such brawls happen both when they lose and when their team wins. Also not uncommon are the cases, when the representatives of two different clubs come together to decide which club is the best. Such a movement gave rise to a network of beer bars aimed specifically at one group or another. Subsequently, they became a kind of headquarters and a gathering place for regular fans. As for age, here it is impossible to draw a clear parallel, it is possible to meet both 14-year-old fans and already quite mature men, up to 40 and more years. Since soccer is strictly a man’s game, more than 90 percent of the clubs’ members are men, but recent modern trends have opened the door and membership to women. Musical preferences among soccer fans are different and here too it is impossible to draw a clear distinction, what these or those people listen to. It can be both rock music and electronic music.
The modern hipster subculture has its roots in a subculture founded in the far 1940s. Slightly diverging in time from the Hippie subculture. At that time, the main contingent of adherents of the new trend was taken from jazz music listeners. Later, the scope was expanded to include styles of indie, alternative music, art-house movies and modern literature.
The age of Hipsters ranges from 16-25 years old, they are mainly middle class people who are looking for new forms and ways of social self-expression.On the street to recognize such people is quite simple, they are wearing T-shirts with prints (massively popular in our time) sneakers, notepad, SLR camera, iPhone (or tablet computer). Followers almost literally change their social personality, to accessories, losing the ability to think creatively and create something new.
Western hipsters, completely deny that they are such (as an example, the “domestic” subculture – gopniks).
Unisex style prevails in their clothing (single appropriate to wear, for both men and women).
As for their social or political stance, they simply do not exist. Representatives of this type of youth subculture, in no way seek to prove themselves. They are passive to politics, riots, protests, or other means of youth self-expression. Total apathy towards the entire social world is a constant feature of this subculture stratum.
They like to take a lot of pictures (like Vanilla girls), laying out in most cases – in social networks, for general review.Representatives themselves consider themselves creative people, although the ability to produce something really worthwhile, they are at a very minimum, (nowadays it is very fashionable to be creative, so it is not surprising why modern youth is so fond of this bourgeois trend), they deny mainstream, doing everything the opposite. The less popular a writer or director is, the more attractive he is to this circle of people.In Russia (as in Europe), they mostly work in their “creative” specialty – photographer, designer, marketer, advertiser, etc., in general all creative positions just beckon them, like sugar bees. They do monotonous work and do not shine with ambition. They can be compared to the hippies of our time, only adjusted to the modern way.
They like to keep online diaries, on popular blogging services like LiveJournal (LiveJournal), Blogs Mail, Twitter. Most of their actions or “thoughts”, almost instantly flow into social networks. However, you cannot call them bright and promising in any way.
The main difference between them and other subcultures is the ability to adapt to the changing stop. As fashions and trends change, they also change internally and externally. On the one hand this is a great advantage compared to musical subcultures.
5.The influence of subcultures on modern society.
The youth subcultures of modern society are characterized by their own special rules and have their own trend of development. Teenagers are very different in their outlook, manner of behavior and habits. In the process of self-knowledge they try to find their place in life, define their goals and understand themselves. Quite often such searches lead to such rather serious problems as teenage alcoholism and early drug addiction. Therefore, the influence of subcultures on adolescents is one of the most pressing problems, which worries all parents without exception.
Recent sociological studies have shown that many adolescents identify themselves as a representative of a particular subculture. At the same time, some young people are exposed to a strong influence of subcultures, which can be both positive and negative. In the first case, teenagers acquire the skills necessary for life in social society, and in the second case, they acquire the qualities which the society tries to fight against by all available means.
Teenage subcultures help young people realize their desires and adapt to adult and independent life. But there are also negative aspects, such as cruelty to certain groups of people. For example, skinheads are characterized by racism and can, according to their ideology, commit criminal acts against people of other nationalities. For them, there is nothing illegal in such behavior, and therefore they do not understand that they are responsible for their actions. In this case, teenage subcultures have a negative impact on their worldview, setting the young generation against other members of society.
Summing up the work, it should be noted that there are rapid processes of change in society, which accordingly affect the social and cultural preferences of adolescents. And you can not count on the effective self-realization of the younger generation in a society where the cultural level of other age and population groups in Russia is constantly decreasing. Due to the political and economic processes of modern Russia, the main traditional agents of socialization are in crisis. The average Russian family is not able to perform its socializing role qualitatively, there is a sharp decline in its educational functions. The Russian system of education today is at the stage of radical transformation.
On the basis of such contradictions the modern youth subculture grows – “all of contrasts, of sharp angles, of a tangle of moral and aesthetic problems.