More and more often we meet black and white squares on the street, see them on TV screens, business cards, in magazines, on T-shirts, on different packages, on cars and so on. The so-called QR code or QR matrix is a two-dimensional bar code containing different information and designed for reading by means of special scanners and cell phone cameras.
The aim of the work is to study the ways of creating QR codes
To get acquainted with the history of QR codes creation;
To consider the spheres of appliance of QR codes;
To study the principle of QR codes creation;
To examine the ways of creating QR codes;
To create their own QR codes;
To compare online services on creation of QR codes;
The subject of the research is the ways of creating and reading QR-codes.
The object of the research – QR-Codes.
Research methods: questioning, classification, observation, systematization, conversation, study and analysis of Internet and literature sources, experiment, conclusions.
We conducted a questionnaire survey in the 9th grades. To the question “Do you know what a QR code is?” 62% of pupils don’t know, 38% know. To the question “Can the ability to read and create QR codes be useful in life?” Yes – 64%, don’t know – 25%, no – 11%.
We consider that this topic is actual, as QR codes are a part of modern life and it is necessary to know how to use them.
Chapter 1. The appliance of QR codes
Once at the information lessons we have noticed a QR code on the cover of the notebook on informatics. We have decided to find out what it has. Everybody has smartphones with a scanner program, with the help of which we found out what is encrypted under this code. It’s encrypted: “I love computer science.”
Each of you goes to the store and for sure you have noticed a QR code on your receipts. Not so long ago new banknotes of 200 and 2000 rubles denomination came into our life. On the front side of every banknote there is a QR code, having scanned which it is possible to read at the site of the Bank of Russia about the art design of the banknotes and their protection. We have scanned and seen the information, which can be read by clicking on the link to the website, which is scanned by the qr-code of the banknote.
Chapter 2. What is a QR code
The abbreviation “QR” is deciphered as “quick response”. It should be understood literally, because QR code is a two dimensional bar code, which contains information, which can be easily responded by scanning it with the help of the special scanner.
The QR-code was invented a long time ago – in 1994, but it is widespread now, when due to technological progress it has become possible to use it in everyday life.
The Japanese high-tech people from the company “Denso Wave” have invented the bar QR code, considering that it was inconvenient to use an ordinary bar code because of the increasing volume of information, which had to be encoded. QR ¬ code pictures can make the process of choosing a product or service easier, because a small square on the package or a billboard can contain information that is inconvenient or expensive to place in a text form, which is the most actual in
society today. With this technology, you can click on
link, send an email, sms, find out the coordinates of a place – and
many other things. A QR code can contain 7089 numbers or 4296 letters.
The codes have only just reached Russia. And now it is the era of smartphones, where it is possible to download a special program for reading codes – even children can use a QR code on their own! So what are they for? How to use a QR-code? What information may be contained in a QR-code and how can it be generated? This is what we have decided to find out in the process of research.
A QR code is represented in the form of a special image and it is often possible to see three squares, which are larger than other elements. The programs which have to decipher the message hidden there are focused on these squares. Thanks to these elements, the application evaluates the scale and tilt level. QR can store much more data than a traditional barcode. Theoretically, about 2.5 pages of text can be transmitted in this way. However, in order to make decoding easier, up to several hundred characters are encoded in this way in normal conditions.
It is possible to encode a QR code in several ways, and the choice of the particular method depends on what characters are used. If only digits from 0 to 9 are used, then it is possible to apply digital coding, if it is necessary to encode Latin letters, spaces and symbols ±*/$%*: in addition to digits, alphanumeric coding is used. There is also the kanji encoding, which is used to encrypt Chinese and Japanese characters, and byte-by-by-byte encoding. Before each coding method, an empty sequence of bits is created and then filled in.
There are mandatory fields on the QR code, they do not carry encoded information, but contain information for decoding. These are:
Mask and correction level code
Version code (from version 7)
as well as a mandatory indent around the code. The indent is a frame of white modules, its width is 4 modules.
The main advantage of QR codes is the easy recognition by the scanning equipment which makes it possible to use them in different spheres of human activities.
Chapter 3. Methods of QR code creation
The simplest way to create a QR code online. There are many different online services for the generation of codes, which open much more opportunities. Such services offer to save the received result to the computer or give the link for further downloading. Another undoubted advantage is the possibility to create a QR code online with a picture of the specified size. In order to create a QR-code in a couple of seconds, you can use the online QR-code generator service. The picture with the code can be downloaded without any restrictions. The code is created from text, numbers or an Internet address on the fly. You enter and immediately see how the QR-code changes. For a better visual result, set the main color and background in the online generator. There are also additional parameters: Encoding level, encoding format, error protection. The last point is important because not all QR code scanners recognize complex codes. In order to be sure that the code will work on any devices, it is possible to set the protection parameter to “very high”.
Online services for creation of a QR code:
QR Hacker is a service, which allows making your QR unrepeatable not only by its content, but also by its form. It is possible to add your own logo by coloring the usual geometric shapes or rounding corners. We get the traditional black and white QR. This can be colored or saved in its original form. The necessary tools for editing are placed on the right panel. Here you can find the function of rounding corners, as well as tools for working with the background and transparency. There are also elements for adding a logo. The only drawback is that the program is in English.
The next service is Qrmania. The service is simple and clear. But while creating a QR code it is impossible to insert text and a logo, but it is possible to change the color of the code and the background.
Qrcc. It is impossible to insert a logo. It is possible to order the printing of the result on various accessories and clothes. It is a very simple and convenient resource which we recommend for quick creation of a QR code.
QR Code Studio is a program for creating QR codes:
QR Code Studio. The program QR Code Studio (for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X) allows you to create QR codes quickly and conveniently. The resulting barcodes can be saved in graphic format (BMP, GIF, JPG, PNG or TIFF) or copied to the clipboard. No special knowledge is required: the data entry assistant facilitates the creation of QR codes for electronic business cards and mobile tagging. QR-Code Studio is completely free for private and non-commercial use.
QR codes have become very popular in our life and are used in a great number of human activities and provide different kinds of information. For example, in the restaurant business QR codes can contain the menu or information about the dish. In tourism QR codes can be placed to the buildings, monuments, constructions and museums. They can press in many respects the guides, because now there is no need to buy them as all the information about one or another exhibit can be known by decoding the QR code placed at it. It is possible to place them on banners, posters, etc. QR codes can supplement the advertising information or simply replace it completely.
QR codes are also gaining popularity in education. They can be used in educational, game, project and extracurricular activities, to organize spaces, to create libraries and also to apply them in educational work.
In learning activities, you can create different kinds of reference materials, tips, answers, tests. Nowadays various quests are very popular in game activities, where QR codes can be both the tasks for passing the quest and the directional guides. It is also possible to put into QR codes information about different objects, which promotes the creation of virtual libraries and laboratories and it is also possible to get additional information about the museum exhibit by reading the code. The method of QR codes is able to make the process of choosing a product or service easier, as a small square at the package or a promotional poster can contain the information, which is inconvenient or expensive to place in the text form, which is the most actual in the modern society.
There are many different Online Services. We conducted a study, considered 4 services, and made a comparative characteristic. We consider Qrcc service to be the simplest one and recommend you to create your own QR-Code. In the process of work we have learned how to create different QR-Codes with the help of online services and programs. Appendix 2 shows our QR-Codes, we have encoded proverbs in them.
In the process of work we came to conclusions:
It’s not difficult to create a QR-code;
There are simple online services for creation of QR-codes;
It is possible to use in different spheres of human activity;
The method of QR codes can facilitate the process of choosing a product or service;
Using our smartphone we can scan a QR code and know the information, encoded by the code.