Upbringing of the younger generation is a priority task of modern world education. The most important task of modern education is to identify aptitudes and abilities, correlate them with real opportunities, and develop the student in accordance with his individual characteristics. The goals and methods of education should correspond not only to the level of development already achieved by the child, but also to the “zone of the child’s closest development”.
A school graduate should be prepared to meet the requirements and demands of society. Simple assimilation of some information is not a universal mechanism of personal development. The modern student must learn to see the unity of the world and act as the author of his or her own vision of the world. The teacher is called to organize the purposeful formation of students’ planned attitudes toward various phenomena of the surrounding life that they encounter in the classroom. Educational requirements for the lesson include:
– Determining the educational possibilities of the teaching material, activities in the lesson;
– forming and setting realistically achievable educational goals;
– educating students on universal human values;
– forming of vital qualities: diligence, responsibility, diligence, independence, efficiency, attentiveness, etc;
– attentive and sensitive attitude to students, compliance with the requirements of pedagogical tact, cooperation with students and interest in their success.
Upbringing will be the whole process of education in general, if the teacher not just informs knowledge to students, and all his work, the whole system of classes teaches students the ability to learn all their life, to independently acquire knowledge, to develop their personal attitude to the cognition, to overcome the difficulties of knowledge, to create themselves. The task of the teacher is that the content is perceived by students as a certain value: social, moral, aesthetic, environmental and others. It is very important that the lesson was held in an atmosphere of intellectual, moral, and aesthetic experiences, the clash of different views and opinions, the search for truth and possible solutions to the problem or problem, the creativity of the teacher and students. And this applies not only to the subjects of the humanities cycle. The strongest educational moments at lessons, especially in the upper grades, are those when the teacher thinks aloud, leads the thought of the students, searches together with them for the right way to solve the problem, rejects something, replaces it along the way, explaining why, thinks about it, invites as if to look forward to what it will lead to. It is thought and time itself that can teach students to think. Therefore, the teacher needs to find time to listen to each student, to give each of them an opportunity to participate in the search, to build a correct, logical answer, i.e. to teach how to argue an answer, to express their point of view.
Any lesson as a part of the educational system has a certain educational potential, a set of available opportunities for educating students. The educational potential of the lesson includes the following groups of possibilities:
– educational opportunities of the organization of the lesson (opportunities for the education of students available in the lesson regardless of the subject and topic of a particular lesson);
– educational possibilities, conditioned by the specifics of the lesson (for example, there are more possibilities for the ecological education in the biology lesson than in the literature; literature is more favorable for aesthetic education than in chemistry; history, local history, life safety training lessons have more possibilities for the patriotic education than the math lessons, etc.);
– educational opportunities of the content of education at the lesson, which depend on the topic of the lesson, its educational and developmental goals and objectives.
Realization of the educational potential of the content of curricula is achieved on the condition that:
– solving educational tasks in the course of each lesson in unity with the tasks of training and development of the personality of a schoolchild;
– purposeful selection of the teaching material, presenting to pupils examples of real morals;
– use of modern educational technologies;
– organizing independent and creative research activities of students at school and outside of school hours.
Designing an Educational Task for the Lesson
An obligatory requirement for the modern lesson is a planned beforehand educational task, which is formulated as part of the overall goal of the lesson along with the educational and developmental tasks. Consequently, the educational task of the lesson should be concrete and clear to children and the teacher himself.
Educational tasks should provide for the use of the content of the teaching material, teaching methods, forms of organization of cognitive activity:
– for the formation and development of various qualities of personality;
– upbringing of a belief in the possibility of knowing the laws of nature and using the achievements of science for the benefit of the development of civilization;
– cooperation in the process of joint fulfillment of tasks, upbringing of respectful attitude towards the opinion of the opponent while discussing the problems of modern reality;
– to be ready for moral and ethical evaluation of the use of scientific achievements and their own actions.
The formulation of the educational task in the context of the subject section and the topic of a particular lesson is as follows: to bring up (form) attitudes (cultural, social, moral)/ personal qualities/ values/ emotional response and feelings/ certain personal abilities/ needs/ motives/ certain social skills and abilities.
The educational tasks of the lesson must meet the following requirements:
– be formulated in an imperfect, extended form (“educate,” “develop”);
– to be concrete and clear (not “to bring up students’ citizenship” but to name those components of citizenship which students will work on at this lesson, for example “to bring up respect for the defenders of the Motherland”);
– be based on the content of the lesson;
– correspond to the logic of the used teaching methods, means, and technologies.
While summarizing the lesson it is useful to name the educational task of the lesson and analyze the course and the result of its implementation.
Content of Teaching
The content of education is a concrete answer to the question about what to teach the growing generation, what knowledge to take from all the wealth accumulated by mankind. The content is understood as a system of knowledge, skills, selected for study in a particular type of school. This system contains: knowledge about the world, society, modern production, culture and art; generalized intellectual and practical skills of acquiring knowledge and ways of using them; skills of cognitive activity, creative solutions of theoretical and practical problems, mastering which provides a certain level of intellectual, social and spiritual development of students.
The category of educational content reflects the social experience accumulated by previous generations, which includes: known to people knowledge about nature, people, society; acquired by mankind skills of performing known ways of activity; experience of solving new problems that arise before society; experience of social and interpersonal relations; experience of knowing the world and man in it; evaluative judgments about life, nature, etc.
Historically, scientific knowledge is included in the content of school education in a distributed form, i.e. divided into separate parts – subjects. The educational subject is a part of human culture isolated by certain features, most often by belonging to a certain class of phenomena.
The accumulation of social experience leads to an increase in the number of educational subjects, as the principle of subjectivity is preserved. There is a differentiation (reduction) of unified and indivisible in its basis knowledge, separation of its parts – subjects. In this case, it often happened that the same knowledge that fell into different subjects, received there a different interpretation.
The system of knowledge and skills, which is implemented in the content of school education, should be necessary and sufficient to ensure the progressive development of man and society. In this regard, the content is outlined in such a way as to create a solid foundation for the comprehensive development of students, the formation of their thinking, cognitive interests, preparation for life, work activities. It should reflect both current and future needs.
The requirements for the content of education in secondary schools are determined by the state strategy for the development of education. There are two inextricably linked aspects to the content of Russian education: national and universal. The first reflects everything that a future citizen and patriot of his country needs to know; the second reflects universal knowledge and values. The general foundations for further improvement of the content of school education are: humanization, differentiation, integration, widespread use of new information technologies, and the formation of a creative personality as a condition and result of a complete, multicomponent learning process. The role of a system-forming education is assigned to the natural and mathematical sciences and humanities.
Principles of Forming the Education Content
1. Humanism, which requires giving priority to universal values in the content.
2. Consistency, i.e. planning of content in an ascending manner, where each new knowledge builds on and follows the previous one
3. Historicism, requiring that school courses reflect the history of development of a particular branch of science or human practice and highlight, in connection with the problems being studied, the activities of outstanding scholars. 4.
4. Systematicity – consideration of studied knowledge and skills in a system, organization of the content of school education in the form of a set of systems entering into each other and into the general human culture.
5. Connection with life – verification of effectiveness of studied knowledge and formed skills through practical application.
6. Correspondence to age capabilities and level of preparedness of schoolchildren to whom the content is addressed.
7. Accessibility, which requires selection of adequate level of presentation of scientific knowledge in educational books, introduction of optimal number of scientific concepts and terms.
The content should be selected in such a way that teachers have an opportunity to individualize their educational work, taking into account the interests and abilities of students. In so-called related disciplines, attention shall be paid to the interrelation of individual sections and topics. The content should include material that facilitates vocational orientation and adaptation to life. The content should guide students to self-education.
The main directions of reforming the content of education
Reforming of school education content is based on humanitarization, humanization, ecologization, integration, purposeful use of world and national culture assets, and wide application of new information technologies.
Humanitarization is a general orientation of educational content toward prioritizing the acquisition of knowledge and skills that are essential for all people, for every individual, regardless of his or her occupation. What kind of knowledge is necessary for everyone? Among the most important are philosophy, native language, literature, history, and regional studies.
Humanization of the content of education is a multi-dimensional process that includes not only the humanities, but all other subjects as well. There is a need for an optimal balance between humanitarian and natural disciplines, as well as for “humanization” of courses in mathematics, biology, and technical disciplines, filling them with knowledge, whose role is crucial in forming a scientific picture of the world and helping students understand the relationship between man and society and technology. Acquiring humanistic content leads to the formation of a humanistic type of personality, characterized by thinking and behavior oriented toward man and his life. A humanist understands the meaning of human life and views people not only as producers of goods, but also as self-sufficient individuals who preserve their self-value and identity. The priority role in school humanization belongs to history and literature (literary and linguistic) education, moral and aesthetic education, humanistic courses that allow children to learn more about themselves and the world, to master the skills of self-organization and self-regulation of their own behavior.
Differentiation does not mean the allocation of new training courses or subjects, but the creation of favorable conditions for the education of students with different abilities, needs and attitudes towards learning. As you know, each person has a different goal of getting a school education. Students have different inclinations, opportunities, life plans. Some choose a liberal arts major, while others pursue a science, math, or art major. Some learn in schools with advanced study of subjects, while others prefer to study them at the primary level. It is clear that the content of education should be differentiated, as much as possible adapted to the students who have chosen one or another level.
Integration involves condensing, structuring, highlighting the main, system-forming knowledge, skills, withdrawal of low-value, secondary, not necessary for all knowledge and skills. This is not a mechanical truncation of the volume, but the highest level of analytical work, which should be engaged, because the volume of content has already exceeded all imaginable limits and is not yet reduced. The new model projects an optimal amount of content in terms of relevance and necessity. There is less content, but the quality of the content is improved by structuring it.
Integration is accompanied by processes of reorganization of knowledge, its goal becomes the unification of areas of knowledge, their unification, condensation, collation of information. Integration can be
– intrasubject, which implies ordering the content of a separate academic subject around the main core of essence;
– inter-disciplinary, based on the general principles of related subjects.
The idea of ecologization runs through all subject areas of school education. Mankind has found itself on the verge of a global environmental catastrophe, and if this idea is not subordinated to mastering the entire content of school education, if human culture is not mastered in the context of harmonious coexistence of man and nature, all knowledge and skills may be unnecessary. This is so important and significant today that in many countries of the world ecologization of education becomes the leading principle in building new content. Taking into account international and domestic experience, the following principles and approaches are being implemented in modern natural-mathematical education:
Purposeful use of the achievements of national and world culture involves the formation of content so that the objectives of training merged with the objectives of education in one general direction – the formation of a person and a citizen. When creating content, it is necessary to see behind it the main thing – what kind of person and for what kind of life we want to prepare at school.
The use of new information technologies aims to expand the amount of knowledge that students learn through better ways of structuring, organizing, and presenting it, while making it easier to perceive, understand, and learn through new ways of presentation that are dominated by dynamic visualization models and provide interactive cognitive activities.
Upbringing content of the subjects
Native language. The main educational orientation of these lessons consists in fostering a valuable attitude towards the language, its aesthetic expressiveness, moral content. In addition, the content of exercises, tasks and educational texts on this subject provides the following opportunities for the upbringing of schoolchildren:
– enriching children’s ideas about people’s relationships;
– Familiarization with the norms and rules of life in society;
– familiarization with forms of expression of emotions, feelings;
– expansion of students’ ideas about the surrounding world;
– environmental education.
Literary reading. The content of texts for reading create a basis for discussion and decision at the lessons of the moral actions of people, their evaluation, reflection; help students to understand the content of moral concepts. Most texts of educational books actualize such concepts as justice, honesty, friendship, loyalty, humanity, patriotism, good and evil through an attractive artistic form and emotionality. The vivid characters of the characters demonstrate the manifestation of these relationships and qualities in various situations. The analysis of literary works, organized by the teacher at the lesson, helps students to understand the motives for the actions of the characters.
Literature lessons help develop skills to conduct a dialogue in different communicative situations; to follow the rules of speech etiquette; to navigate in the moral content of what they read; to draw conclusions independently; to relate the actions of characters to moral norms
Foreign language. The content of the teaching material should be aimed at fostering respect for multinational, multicultural, multilingual, and multiconfessional composition of society; greater awareness of the characteristics of the culture of one’s people; cultivation of civic identity; awareness of one’s ethnic and national belonging.
Social science subjects. The content of social studies subjects has the biggest educational potential among all subjects of the school program, as represented by the areas of Man and Nature, Man and Society, History, Economics, etc., which have a socially active character. The study of subjects contributes to the formation of the basics of civil, ethno-national, social, cultural self-identity of the student, a sense of pride in his homeland; humanistic and democratic value orientations, civic identity, emotionally colored relationship with nature and culture; understanding of the need for a healthy lifestyle, compliance with rules of safe behavior; understanding of the need for environmental behavior in school, everyday life and the natural environment; the ability to assess relationships between people in different socio-economic and cultural spheres.
Mathematics and computer science and natural science subjects. Educational tasks of lessons in this subject area are based on the facts contained in the conditions of tasks and tasks, information about the processes of the surrounding life. Exercises, tasks and tasks contribute to the formation of critical and logical thinking; skills of evaluation, structuring of information and emphasizing the main point; abilities to complete the started work to the end; striving to choose a rational way of solving the task and performing the task; abilities to follow the rules while performing the tasks, upbringing of responsible and careful attitude towards the environment, awareness of the need to use achievements of modern science and technologies for the rational use of nature, formation of the basics of environmental and ecological education.
The subject area “Art” shall provide development of aesthetic taste, artistic thinking of students, ability to perceive aesthetics of natural objects, to empathize with them, sensual and emotional evaluation of harmony of the relationship between people and nature and express their attitude by art means; formation of interest and respectful attitude towards the cultural heritage and values of the Russian nations, treasures of the world civilization, their preservation and enhancement; ability to organize a cultural leisure, independent recreation and creative activity.
Technology. The content of the subject provides the initial experience of labor self-education; formation of qualities and attitudes: industriousness, organization, conscientious and responsible attitude to work, initiative, need to help others, respect for other’s work and work results; understanding of the cultural and historical value of traditions reflected in the world of objects, respect for them, etc.
Educational potential of pedagogical technologies, forms and methods of teaching
Most of modern educational technologies presuppose organization of active activities of students at different levels of cognitive independence, which is the most important condition for the realization of the educational potential of a modern lesson.
In implementing the educational process in the format of a lesson, the teacher uses different teaching methods and pedagogical technologies, each of which, in its own way, affects the education and development of the personality of a schoolchild:
– search and research methods form the student’s values of scientific knowledge, bring up purposefulness, perseverance, independence and critical thinking, the ability to make decisions;
– reproductive methods (tasks) educate diligence, responsibility, persistence in overcoming difficulties, the desire to complete the work, develop autonomy, the ability to follow instructions;
– creative methods (tasks) form the values of creativity and creation, bring up purposefulness, persistence, diligence, contribute to self-knowledge;
– methods of learning based on the students’ choice allow the student to clarify the sphere of his/her interests and values, contribute to self-knowledge, influence the motivation of learning and self-education, develop goal-setting, creativity, ability to make a choice;
– the project method develops subjectivity of the student, fosters independence, initiative, organization, responsibility, develops reflection, self-control, contributes to the adequacy of self-assessment;
– teaching methods in pairs and small groups promote, first of all, communicative skills – social interaction: to cooperate in the process of learning activity, to help and accept the help of comrades, to follow the course of joint work and direct it in the right direction;
– methods and technologies of marking and nonmarking develop self-assessment and assessment skills: assessing the progress and results of one’s own activity and the activity of others, promoting self-knowledge, self-control, and reflection. They form regulative skills.
It is important for a teacher to be able to analyze the process of upbringing in a lesson.
A sample plan of the analysis could be as follows:
– use of educational possibilities of the organization of the lesson;
– upbringing of interest to learning, to the process of cognition (ways of creation and maintenance of interest, activation of cognitive activity of pupils);
– education of conscious discipline (the ability of the teacher to show the importance of learning and cognitive activity, learning and work discipline);
– formation of abilities and skills of students to organize their activities (organization of independent work of students, observance of safety and hygienic rules related to posture and organization of the workplace);
– fostering the culture of communication (organization of communication in the lesson, the formation of the teacher’s skills of listening, expressing and arguing their opinions)
– forming and development of evaluation skills (the teacher’s comments on the evaluations, discussion of the evaluations with pupils, collective evaluation, cross-checking and evaluating of each other by pupils);
– Humanity (the nature of the teacher-student relationship, the teacher’s regulation of the relationship between pupils).
It is also necessary to teach children to value and use their time productively. The teacher himself should set an example of rational use of time in the lesson:
– clearly indicate the time for each stage of work;
– choose optimal content and formulate tasks and questions in a way that students can understand.
Therefore, a competent teacher will strive to teach students learning and cognitive activities. Choosing and applying in each case the best way to perform learning tasks means rational organization of learning activities. Experienced teachers testify that when teaching the techniques of learning activities, students find not only a higher level of mastery of the subject, but also a higher level of thinking and learning skills. In the process of teaching some students spontaneously form some ways of organizing their learning activities, some private methods of solving problems, writing essays, etc. In addition to private methods of learning activities it is necessary to teach them the methods of comparison, generalization, concretization, definition of concepts, work with a textbook, notebooking, making an outline, preparing homework, preparing for the test work, etc.
Methods for organizing educational activities while working with the learning content
Let us outline some general methods of educational and cognitive activity.
The general method of organizing attention: students must attune themselves internally to the upcoming work (define its purpose), focus externally on the upcoming work – sit up straight at your desk, look at the teacher or the person with whom they are working, use all types of attention (involuntary, voluntary, post-arbitrary), make themselves pay attention, not to allow themselves to be distracted from the work started, use techniques for maintaining attention (making plans, posing questions, retelling the reading, etc.), with the help of the following methods.
The general technique of the organization of perception of the visual and aural information: to define (or accept the given) purpose of perception, to allocate object of supervision (hearing) and to organize convenient conditions of information perception, to define the most expedient for the given case ways of fixation (description, outlining, sketching, record in the table, special drawings, charts, symbols, photos, etc.), to receive and fix information in the chosen way, to analyze and generalize the received information.
General technique of the organization of memory: to realize why we need to memorize the material studied, to determine what you need to remember for a long time and what not, and to make yourself the appropriate installation, to understand and think about the material beforehand, not to memorize mechanically, to use techniques that promote memorization: the allocation of the material, comparison with previously learned, arrangement of memorized material in a logical sequence, making a plan, a table or chart, retelling, instantiation, application, mnemonic and gaming techniques, combining different types of
For students are important and methods of implementation of logical operations (operational thinking).With the help of thought operations is carried out understanding, comprehension, generalization, systematization of the studied material and ways of activity, transfer of learned in new situations, the construction of a coherent system of knowledge.
The main thought operations include:
– Analysis: makes it possible to check whether it is possible to use any method of comparison. If impossible, then to dissect the studied object into its constituent elements (signs, properties, relations, special cases). Then examine (study) each element separately, if necessary, include the studied object in connections and relations with others, make a plan of research (study) of the object as a whole.
– Comparison: using observation and analysis, highlight the properties of the given objects or their parts, conduct semantic analysis of objects (whether they can be compared), establish different and insignificant properties of objects (distinctive features). And also to formulate a basis for comparison (given or found among existing features of objects), to compare objects (or their parts) on this basis, to establish dependence between them, to formulate a conclusion of comparison.
– Synthesis: combines the properties obtained in the analysis (comparison) into a single whole.
– Generalization: allows you to fix the first impression of the objects to be generalized, on the basis of analysis and comparison to formulate common and essential properties of these objects. It is possible to combine objects with common essential properties into one set, give a name (term, symbol) to the resulting set. With the help of generalization one can formulate a judgment – a characteristic property of the resulting new set of objects (or definition of a new concept).
– Abstraction: makes it possible to separate essential and non-essential properties of given objects, to distinguish their common and different properties, to define essential and common properties. In another case, to discard unessential and different properties, to formulate the resulting judgment about objects with the obtained properties.
– Concretization: allows you to give an example illustrating an abstract concept (judgment, property) orally, with the help of a scheme, drawing, drawing, model, etc.
– Classification: examines the given objects, establishes their essential features, formulates on the basis of analysis and comparison common and different properties (attributes) of the studied objects. And also allows you to choose the basis of classification – the feature by which it will be carried out, to divide the entire set of objects into non-intersecting classes so that each object falls into one and only one class.
– Systematization: the classes selected (on the basis of classification) are united into groups according to the similarity of their characteristic features, establish connections between the classes, represent the obtained system in the form of a table, scheme, etc.
– Specialization: allocates in a class of objects (concepts, properties) a subclass on some attribute (kind), formulates a characteristic property of its objects.
To the methods of development of logical (formal) thinking include: methods of working with concepts: the formation of concepts, the definition of the concept. Theoretical thinking is realized through the formation of concepts and their operation, formulation of judgments about concepts and inferences about their properties. Theoretical thinking is the thought of the subject, the reflection of the subject in its essential features. Therefore, there is a definition of a concept through the indication of the nearest kind or species differences, genetic definition of a concept, definition of a concept through abstraction, definition of a concept through axioms, constructive definition of a concept, inductive definition of a concept, separation of consequences from the concept definition, construction of an equivalent definition, proving the equivalence of different concept definitions, using the concept definition.
A modern high school graduate should have a well-developed oral and written language. There are also general techniques for the development of speech:
– formulate sentences according to a given pattern (rule, scheme technique);
– to make questions to a text, for a conversation, for an interview, for work in a pair or group, on homework, for a speech or answer of comrades, etc.)
– write self-dictations, outline and retell texts, abstract and annotate texts (textbook, additional literature),
– prepare short reports on additional literature and speak with them, review texts and peer performances.
Oral speech is developed in oral responses to speeches.
Rules for oral presentation:
– state the speech according to the plan, highlighting its semantic parts;
– Follow the grammar rules, use the vocabulary more extensively (it is useful to use the explanatory dictionary more often);
– try to enhance the emotionality of the speech and speak expressively (with the right intonation);
– watch your diction, improve it, watch how you are listened to and perceived;
– establish a rapport with the audience and get feedback.
Review (self-reflect) the answer in class (answer the questions in sequence):
– Was the material presented consistently, according to plan?
– Was the answer sufficiently complete, reasoned?
– Were the conclusions summarized?
– What mistakes were made?
– Was the speech literate and expressive? Systematic use of these techniques gives a positive result, if they are used both in the classroom and when doing homework. If the content of educational material for work in the classroom and at home will be selected taking into account the development of memory, attention, imagination, speech, then an individual approach to the student, taking into account his needs and capabilities is automatically carried out. Lesson content that focuses only on knowledge is neutral for students. Therefore, the realization of the potential of the lesson, aimed at the education and socialization of students, the development of personality and learning skills will make the lesson productive and modern.