Basketball is a sports team game with a ball.
Basketball is one of the most popular sports. Basketball is played by two teams, each team consists of five field players (all in each team 12 people, no substitutions are limited). The goal of each team is to throw the ball by hand into the opponent’s ring with a net (basket) and to prevent the other team from taking possession of the ball and throwing it into its own basket. The basket is 3.05 m (10 ft) above the floor. Two points are awarded for a ball thrown from near or middle distance, and three points for a ball thrown from far (from behind the 3-point line); a free throw is awarded one point. The standard size of the basketball court is 28 meters long and 15 meters wide. Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the world.
Basketball players are characterized by well-developed eyesight and a wide field of vision. Emotional game lifts a person’s mood, makes him sociable and contact.
Since its inception (1891, USA), basketball has undergone many changes and refinements. Techniques and tactics of the game were improved, competition rules and judging, the size of the playing field, its layout and equipment were clarified. The game became widespread throughout the world, began to hold numerous meetings and competitions, up to intercontinental. Basketball has been part of the Olympic Games since 1936 (James Naismith, the inventor of the game, was there as a guest). Regular world basketball championships for men have been held since 1950, women since 1953, and European championships since 1935.
There are international club competitions in Europe: Euroleague, Eurocup, FIBA Challenge Cup.
The game reached its greatest development in the United States: the National Basketball Association (NBA) championship has been the strongest national club tournament in the world for more than 50 years. Basketball is considered a national sport in Lithuania
A holistic pedagogical system of basketball training has emerged.
In modern life, more and more usage of physical activity is aimed not at achieving high results, but at increasing its health-improving effect on the majority of people. To solve this global problem the most effective means are, first of all, sports games.
Modern basketball is in the stage of a rapid creative rise, aimed at enhancing action, both on offense and defense. Basketball is one of the means of physical development and education of young people.
In accordance with the comprehensive program of physical education of schoolchildren basketball is one of the means of physical education. Techniques of the game of basketball is diverse. The most important technique is to shoot. On the accuracy of the shot, ultimately determines the success of the game. Schoolchildren begin to learn how to throw the ball in the 5th grade. However, we did not find any literature data reflecting the level of learning of schoolchildren in throwing, which is studied in the school curriculum. Knowledge of the level of learning and the dynamics of throwing technique will allow teachers to select and use tools in the lesson that provide instruction at a higher level.
1. THE EMERGENCE OF BASKETBALL
In the winter of 1891, the students of the Young Men’s Christian Association College of Springfield, Massachusetts, forced to perform endless gymnastic exercises, which were then regarded as almost the only means of introducing young people to the sport, were very bored in their physical education classes. The monotony of such classes had to be stopped, and a fresh impulse had to be introduced into them, one that would be able to meet the competitive demands of strong and healthy young people.
A college teacher, James Naismith, found a way out of what appeared to be a stalemate. December 21, 1891, he tied two baskets of peaches on the railing of the balcony of the gymnasium and, after dividing the eighteen students into two teams, suggested they play a game whose goal was to throw the most balls in the basket rival.
He came up with the idea of this game in his school days, when children played the old game “duck-on-a-rock” (duck on a rock). The idea of this game, popular at the time, was as follows: throwing a small stone, it was necessary to hit it on top of another stone, larger in size.
Rather pragmatically called “basketball,” the game resembled vaguely modern basketball. There was no ball-handling, the players only threw it to one another from a standing position and tried to get it into the basket with both hands only from below or below the chest, and after a successful shot one of the players climbed a ladder against the wall and retrieved the ball from the basket. That would make teams look slow and lethargic to us today, but Dr. Naismith’s goal was to create a game that was collective in nature and that involved large numbers of people at once, and his invention answered that need perfectly.
2. HISTORY OF BASKETBALL DEVELOPMENT
Originally designed to liven up gymnastics classes, basketball gradually evolved into a sports game with all its inherent features. In 1894 the first official rules of the game were published in the USA and competitions were held. FIBA, the International Basketball Federation, was established on June 18, 1932.
In 1935 the IOC made a decision to recognize basketball as an Olympic sport. Basketball became more and more popular, but technique, tactics and rules had been changing since the first game. Today two teams of five play on a 28x15m court. The game lasts for 4 halves of 10 minutes net time. If at the end of game time score in the game remained equal, appointed an additional period of 5 minutes, such periods can be unlimited. The team that scores more points wins. For the ball scored from behind the three-point line is awarded 3 points, from the zone to the three-point line – 2, from the free throw line – 1 point.
The origins of modern basketball.
Basketball is probably the only popular sport whose date and place of origin are known with certainty.
Basketball has changed over time… Naysmith certainly could not have envisioned modern sports palaces filled with thousands of fans, because he merely invented basketball as an indoor activity for his students, who had to play something during the long New England winters, and so at first it was a game of patience and strategy… Most early games had scores that never exceeded 15 or 20 points.
Although basketball had always been an athletic game, the opportunities to display “aeriality” in it allowed for the development of athletes who could perform aerial acrobatics that Dr. Naismith could only dream of. Basketball was first introduced to the Olympics in Berlin in 1936.
At the height of the game’s development, Naysmith was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame, even though it was already named after him. Basketball, starting with James Naismith, has come a long way and today is one of the most popular sports in the world.
3. THE EMERGENCE OF PROFESSIONAL LEAGUES
The first officially registered association of professional basketball teams, called the National Basketball League, emerged in 1898 and existed for five years before breaking up into several independent leagues that held their own championships.
One innovation that was supposed to speed up the game but actually increased the risk of injury was the introduction of a wire netting that cordoned off the basketball court on all sides. This kept the ball in play at all times, but only the most desperate fighters, who emerged from such encounters with multiple bruises and permanently afflicted bruises all over their bodies, fought for possession of the ball by the net. Such fences, more suitable for hockey matches or fights without rules, were not abolished until 1929.
Fortunately, there were many more sensible innovations. As early as 1892, baskets began to have their bottoms cut out so that one didn’t have to climb ladders to them after each goal, and then they were replaced by metal rings. Since a ball that was sent to such a ring could barely hit it without hitting the bars, which often led to disputes over how effectively it shot, rope nets with a cylindrical shape and tapering slightly downwards appeared on the rings, clearly indicating when the ball hit the ring.
In the first games, spectators sitting on the balcony behind the basket often prevented the visiting team from hitting it by simply knocking the ball back into the basket of their favorite team. Such tampering led to the introduction of a backboard between the basket and the balcony in 1893 and, not long after, it was discovered that it was easier to bounce the ball off the backboard and into the basket than to hit the basket itself.
The rules of the game gradually changed. (1894), that penalty shots were to be taken without hindrance from 4.57m away from the ring, that two points were awarded for a winning shot and one point for a free throw (1895) and that five players per side was the optimal number of players to participate in the game (1897). Each player was allowed no more than five rules violations per game – a sixth error would automatically result in his removal from the court for the rest of the game.
The most heated debate raged around ball handling. So without arriving at a consensus on the issue, the different leagues have held their own tournament on the rules – some of the ball possession was prohibited categorically, while others were allowed to hit the ball against the floor only a certain number of times, and in some allowed no restrictions, that is, tapping the ball on the floor, the player can catch it, and then resume carrying and repeat this procedure indefinitely. But in any case, the ball was carried out simultaneously with both hands.
In 1946 the Basketball Association of America (BAA) was founded. The first game under its aegis was played on November 1 of that year in Toronto (Canada) between the Toronto Huskies and the New York Knickerbockers. After three playing seasons the association merged with the U.S. National Basketball League in 1949, forming the National Basketball Association (NBA). By mid-century, basketball had become widespread in educational institutions, becoming a key sport there, and as a result, interest in professional basketball increased proportionately as well. In 1959, the Hall of Fame was founded in Springfield, the site of the first basketball game in history, to memorialize the names of the most important players, coaches, referees, and others who made significant contributions to the game. About a decade later, in 1967, another organization was created, the American Basketball Association, which competed with the NBA for a while, but didn’t remain independent for long, merging with the National Basketball Association nine years later. The latter is currently one of the most influential and well-known professional basketball leagues in the world.
4. BASIC RULES
Basketball is played by two teams, each with five players. The goal of each team in basketball is to throw the ball into the opposing team’s basket and prevent the other team from taking possession of the ball and throwing it into the basket.
The winning team in basketball is the team that scores the most points at the end of game time.
According to the rules of basketball game consists of four periods of ten minutes with breaks of two minutes. The break between halves of the game is fifteen minutes. If the score is tied at the end of the fourth period, the game is extended for an extra period of five minutes or as many periods of five minutes as necessary to break the tie. Teams must switch baskets before the third period. The game officially begins with a contested shot in the center circle when the ball is correctly rebounded by one of the contestants.
In basketball, the ball is only played with the hands. Running with the ball, deliberately kicking it, blocking it with any part of the foot, or hitting it with your fist is an offense. Accidentally touching or touching the ball with your foot or leg is not an offence.
If a player accidentally throws the ball from the court into his basket, points shall be awarded to the opposing captain. If a player intentionally throws the ball from the court into his basket, it is an infraction and no points are scored.
If a player forces the ball into the basket from below, this is an infraction. A turnover occurs when a player holds the live ball on the court and steps one or more times in any direction with the same foot, while the other foot, called the supporting foot, maintains its place of contact with the floor.
Each time a player gains control of a live ball on the court, a shot attempt at the basket must be accomplished by his team within twenty-four seconds.
You can have the most fun if you learn the basic techniques – passing, dribbling, shooting to the basket, defense, catching and retrieving the bounced ball. At first, a beginner probably won’t do everything as well as an experienced athlete. But experience is a matter of time.
Each team consists of five players and seven substitutes. Athletes are dressed in uniforms of contrasting colors. On each player’s jersey, on the chest and on the back, a number is drawn. Numbers from 4 to 15 are allowed in international competitions. No two basketball players on the same team may have the same numbers.
The game begins with a contested ball in the center circle. Two people, one from each team, stand in the center circle, each in a semicircle on their side of the court. The referee tosses the ball between them so that above the point of flight it cannot be touched by any of the jumped players, who try to bounce the dropping ball in the direction of their partners. Disputed players have no right to catch the ball. When it is played, the remaining eight athletes must stand outside the center circle until the ball is put into play.
Once a team has possession of the ball, players may pass the ball to each other. While standing still, a player may not take more than one step with the ball in his hands. Passing is the easiest way to move the ball. A team is not limited in their number before attempting a throw. Usually a team will make a few passes before throwing the ball into the basket, but this is not mandatory.
Another way to move the ball is to dribble. This allows a player to move the ball around the court without assistance from a partner. Dribbling is accomplished by hitting the ball against the floor in succession with the hand. A player is not limited in the number of times he strikes the ball while dribbling, but if he catches the ball after dribbling he is not allowed to dribble again. He must pass the ball to a partner or attempt to throw it into the opponent’s basket. The technical player is able to dribble the ball with either hand without looking at it, but observing the actions of other basketball players on the court.
There are no restrictions on which player can throw the ball into the basket and from which position. Everyone in possession of the ball within the court has the right to shoot, but of course the closer they are to the basket, the better their chances of success. The ball must be aimed straight into the ring or into the backboard, after hitting it, which it bounces off into the basket.
If the shot is unsuccessful, the ball bounces off the ring or backboard and either team may try to possess it. Players on the attacking team try to get the ball in the basket immediately or, having possessed it, to make repeated shots. The team has 30 seconds to make a shot at the basket. If this rule is violated, the ball is passed to the other team.
Violations of the rules that are not considered a foul are simply errors: running with the ball in hand (jogging), punching the ball, two-handed dribble, double dribble, knocking the ball out of the court, playing with the foot. At mistakes or fouls, which do not entail the appointment of free throws, play resumes with a throw-in of the ball from – behind the sideline point, closest to the place of violation. The athlete is obliged to put the ball into play within five seconds. After a successful throw from the game or a successful last free throw, the ball is thrown into play by members of the opposing team from behind the front line.
The basketball game is served by two referees and a secretary. The referees move on different sides of the court. They have different rights. The secretarial apparatus includes a timekeeper, a secretary and a 30-second time operator. The officials conduct the game by blowing their whistles and using a system of gestures to show their decisions.
The secretary chronologically summarizes the score in the game record. He records shots from the game, hits and misses on free throws, records fouls received by each player and immediately informs the head referee when a basketball player receives a fifth personal reprimand. He also informs the referees when a team commits eight fouls (after that, any of them are punished by two penalty shots). The secretary records the minute breaks taken by each team and notifies, through the referees, the coach if he takes a second time out in one half of the game. He shows the number of fouls committed by a player, using numbered pointers, in addition notifies the referees in the field of substitutions.
The timekeeper controls the game time and announces the end of the period with a special signal. The game consists of two periods of 20 minutes each. In case of a draw, an additional 5 minute period or as many such periods as are needed to change the score. The game clock registers only pure game time. When the referee gives the signal, the stopwatch stops the clock and starts it again at the moment when, after the ball is put into play, it is touched by one of the basketball players on the court. The clock stops when free throws are taken.
The 30-second clock operator makes sure that the team does not possess the ball for more than 30 seconds before the shot and signals if this rule is broken.
After the end of the first period the teams are given a 10 – minute break. The second period begins with a contested ball, also when both teams have equal possession of the ball.
The team in possession of the ball must push it into the opponent’s half within 10 seconds. After this, the ball must not be returned to the home half. This would be a mistake.
Each team has its own captain. If the captain leaves the court, he must notify the referees which player will perform his duties. Tactics of the team is usually controlled by the coach, who decides which basketball players will start the game, who should be replaced and when. The number of substitutions in a match is not limited. Substitutions are allowed only when the ball is “dead” (out of play) and time is stopped, and if it happened after an infraction, only if the substituting team will have possession of the ball. Since no signal is given after the ball is scored from play and time is not stopped. Substitution in this case is not allowed.
In addition to substitution, the coach may ask for a minute break (time out). He is allowed to take two minute breaks in each half of the game and one in each additional period. Time out can be granted only when the ball is “dead” and game time is set.
For a successful shot from the game the team is awarded two points. The winner is the one who scores more points. A team is defeated if it refuses to continue the game or if fewer than two players remain in its lineup.
The most important thing – remember the first rule – when holding the ball, hold it with the fingers of your hand and never put your hands around it.
5. PLAYERS’ AMPLOYMENT.
Coordinated action by all teams, subordinating their actions to a common task, is necessary for success. The actions of each player on a team have a specific focus, according to which basketball players are differentiated by position:
The center player should be tall, athletic, have excellent stamina and jumping ability;
A winger should be tall, quick and bouncy, have a good sense of time and space, sniper ability, the ability to assess the playing conditions and attack boldly and decisively;
The guard has to be as quick, agile and tough as possible, judicious and attentive.
Distribution of players according to their functions is one of the main principles of game activity. Players are differentiated by their role, not only by playing techniques and location on the court, but also by their psycho¬physiological characteristics.
The effectiveness of play actions is closely related to sensorimotor reactions. The most integrative sensorimotor indicator is the “sense of time”, which can be considered a component of basketball players’ special abilities. The development of “sense of time” is based on the activity of the complex of analyzers, because the perception of time is connected with spatial perception. Basketball players of different positions need a specialized perception of time intervals. Back line players should have a good perception of the intervals of 5-10 seconds, which is associated with the organization of the game, the center – in the interval of 3 seconds, the rules allocated to play in the penalty area; the front line players – for 1-s, the most stable interval of shooting.
Teams strive to gain an advantage over their opponent by disguising their intentions while trying to expose their opponent. The game proceeds with the interaction of the players of the whole team and the resistance of the opposing players, making every effort to take the ball away and organize the offense. In this regard, the requirements for operational thinking of the player come to the fore. It is proved that representatives of sports games have a significant advantage in the decision-making speed compared with representatives of many other sports. Rapid thinking is especially important when it is necessary to take into account the probability of changes in the situation, as well as when making decisions in an emotionally strenuous situation. For evaluation of psychophysiological functions that determine the success of basketball players’ game activity we use methods of research of quickness and accuracy of motor actions, and also volume, distribution and switching of attention and etc.
6. GAME TECHNIQUES
6. 1. TECHNIQUE OF THE GAME ON OFFENSE.
The following techniques are used in attack: moving, jumping, stopping and turning, catching and passing the ball, throwing to the basket, dribbling and feints.
6.1.1 Moving, jumping, stopping and turning.
This group of moves is very important for running the game. Before performing any technique the basketball player has the most stable position with bent legs, feet shoulder width apart or one foot in front, with the trunk slightly tilted, weight equally distributed on both feet and arms bent in front of the trunk.
Of great importance in the technique of execution of various techniques
Ball holding has a big importance in technique of different techniques. When throwing two ╛ hands should not touch the ball with the palms of his hands, the ball must be held by fingertips, which will allow better control ¬ ball and achieve greater accuracy ¬ hits.
Movement is usually by running short distances. While running, the basketball player puts the foot on all feet or rolling from heel to toe, bending both feet significantly. When accelerating, run with a short stride with the foot on the front of the foot.
Jumps are performed by pushing with two legs (from a place and in motion) and one (in motion). To do jumps on the move a basketball player makes the last step wider. When you jump with one leg, he takes the swing leg bent at the knee up sharply, and when you jump with two legs, he puts the swing leg to the supporting and simultaneously pushing back with two legs up. Before pushing legs are always bent. It is important to push off quickly and vigorously. Long jumps are used much less often.
Stops are made by jumping and two steps. In the first case before stopping the player, pushing off one leg makes a low jump forward, tilts the body back and lands on both feet or one. Turns are done with or without ball, in a bearing position and in the air. Ball turns, according to the rules of the game, may be performed standing on one foot and pushing off with the other. They allow the ball carrier to move out of bounds, change attacking directions or beat a defender. Turns are made forward and backward from different starting positions in relation to an opponent, in any number of degrees, on the front and back leg.
6.1.2 Catching the ball.
Catching the ball is performed with one hand and two hands at different heights (above head, at chest, waist and below), in different conditions (on the spot, in motion, in a jump). In addition, the game has to catch the ball, rolling on the court and bounced from it, without resistance and with the resistance of the opponent. Catching the ball with both hands is the most reliable.
Catching the ball, flying at medium height, occurs more often than others. His technique is that the player puts towards the flying ball straightened, slightly relaxed hands with his hands, opened in the form of a funnel. At the moment of contact with the ball with his fingers, he bends his hands, grasps the ball on both sides and pulls it to the body, zanimaya starting position for further action.
Technique of catching the ball flying high depends on the height of flight and steepness of trajectory. Catching the ball with one hand is the most difficult. It is used when the ball is flying very high, away from the player or rolling on the court. The general principles of one-handed catching techniques are the same as catching the ball with two hands. A distinction is made between one-handed catch with support (the ball, stopped by one hand, the other hand picks up from underneath) and without support.
6.1 3. Passing the ball.
There are different ways to pass the ball to your partner in basketball. These can be divided into two large groups: two-handed passes and one-handed passes.
Passing the ball without a bounce and with a bounce from the floor, from a place, in motion, with a jump, with a jump and a turn in the air, with counter movement to the player moving ahead, with low and high trajectory. Accuracy and timeliness of transmissions – a prerequisite for their implementation. Decisive importance in the technique of passing has an active hand movement.
Transmissions of the ball with both hands are executed from the chest, from above and below.
Transmission with two hands from the chest is the main way of interaction with a partner at short and medium distance. To make this transfer the player, taking a position for the game, holds the ball with both hands in front of his chest. Pass ends with active flexion of the hands and extension of the legs.
Transmission with two hands from above is used when the opponent is close to the transferor and prevents the transfer from above or when the attacker has no time to use another method. In the starting position the player holds the ball up, arms slightly bent, legs shoulder width apart and spaced parallel or one in front. To transfer the player makes a short swing back and then, bending his legs, an active movement of the hands forward with a swooping motion of the hands ¬ sends the ball to a partner.
Transmits the ball with one hand are: from the shoulder, from above (hook), from below, from the side.
Passing the ball one-handed from the shoulder is done quickly at any distance. From the starting position the player, supporting the ball with his left hand, translates it on the open right palm (when passing to the right) to the right shoulder. Transmission of ball with one hand from above (hook) is used when the opponent came close and raised his hands.
6.1.4 Throws to the Basket.
The final effort of the attacking team is to make one player to shoot to the basket. The outcome of the game depends on the accuracy of the shot. In modern basketball, a team shoots the ball into the opponent’s basket an average of 65-70 times.
Throws are made from short (up to 3 meters), medium (3-7 meters) and long (over 7 meters) distances. If a player is in front of the basket or close to the line, it is advisable to throw directly to the basket. If he is placed at an angle of 15-45° from the backboard, it is better to throw the ball into the basket with a bounce from the backboard.
Throws to the basket are made with one or two hands. Among the throws with two hands, distinguish between throws from the chest, from above and below (on the move). Throws with one hand are from the shoulder, from above, with hook and from below. Recently, more and more often used throws from the top down and catching the ball. All throws can be made from a place, on the move, in a jump, with a turn with his back to the basket and a jump with a turn in the air. Accuracy of hitting depends on the correct holding of the ball and hand(s) movement, the release of the ball at the highest point and activity of brush movement in the final phase of the throw.
One handed throw from the top of the jump has now become the main way to attack the basket from different distances. It is performed from the floor and on the move.
One-handed hook throw is difficult but effective against opponent’s active opposition. Ball thrown this way is difficult to intercept because it is released at a high point and at a far distance from the defender.
6.2. DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUE.
The efforts of a team that is trying to win with all its might will be in vain if its players make serious errors in their defensive actions.
The offender’s technical arsenal is much richer than the defender’s. Experience shows that defense techniques are more versatile and quite effective if they are implemented correctly and carefully.
There are two main groups of defensive techniques:
1) Technique of movements;
2) Techniques of mastering the ball and counterplay.
6.2.1 Movement technique
A defender should be in a stable position with slightly bent legs and ready to make it difficult for an attacker to attack the basket or get the ball. The defender must keep a close eye on his teammate and keep an eye on the ball and other opposing players.
Stance with feet outstretched forward is used when holding the ball carrier when you want to prevent him to make a shot or go under the board. The player is usually between the attacker and the board. He puts one foot in front of the basket and moves his arm upward to prevent a shot, and his other arm downward to block the ball from going in the direction that is most dangerous to the basket.
When a defender is guarding a ball carrier who is preparing for a mid-range jump shot, they approach their dangerous opponent in a so-called parallel stance and stretch their arm toward the ball to try to prevent the attacker from taking the ball up to take aim.
The direction and nature of the defender’s movement usually depends on the attacker’s actions. That’s why the defender must always keep his position of balance and be ready to move in any direction, all the time changing directions of running to the side, forward, backward (often backward), to control the speed of his movement when he counteracts, as well as opponents, increasing the speed in a short segment of dis¬tance, providing a shortened stopping distance and sharp stops.
The methods of running, jerking, stopping, jumping used by the defender are similar to those described for attacking. However, unlike the attacker in some cases defender ╛ should move on slightly bent legs as a prehensile step, the feature is that the first step is made by the leg closest to the direction of movement, the second step (prehensile) must be sliding. It is not allowed to cross legs and to move the push leg behind the supporting leg not to reduce the speed and maneuverability.
6.2.2 Techniques of mastering the ball and counterplay.
Snatching the ball. If the defender manages to catch the ball, first of all he must try to wrestle it from the hands of the opponent. To do this, you must grasp the ball as deeply as possible with both hands and then sharply pull the ball to himself, making a turn with your torso at the same time. The ball must be rotated around its horizontal axis, which facilitates overcoming resistance of the opponent.
Kicking the ball out. At present, the rationality and efficiency ╛ techniques kicking the ball has increased significantly in connection with the new interpretation of certain points of the rules of the game, which allow execution of these techniques in contact with the hand defender simultaneously with the ball – with the hand of the attacker.
Knocking the ball out of the hands of an opponent. The defender comes close to the attacker, actively interfering with his actions with the ball. To do this, he makes shallow lunges with his hand stretched towards the ball, and then retreats to the starting position. At a convenient moment knockout is carried out sharp (from above or below) a short movement of the hand with tightly pressed fingers. It is recommended to knock out the ball in the moment of catch and mostly from below. It is especially effective to knock out from below the hands of an opponent who is landing the ball in a high jump and did not take the necessary precautions. If a defender was forced to react to an opponent’s feint and jump up, he should knock the ball out when he lands and thus prevent a throw or pass.
Knock the ball out on a dribble. When an attacker starts to pass with a dribble, the defender steps back and jumps slightly, leaving the opponent a straight path to the basket, and pursues him, pushing him back to the touchline. Then the defender picks up the same speed as the attacker and, ahead of the running rhythm, kicks the ball out with the hand closest to the opponent as he receives the ball that has bounced off the court.
You can knock out the ball from the attacker from behind in the initial moment of passage.
Interception of the ball. Intercepting the ball is carried out when passing. The success of this method of interception depends primarily on the timeliness and rapidity of the defender. If the attacker is waiting for the ball in place and does not go towards him, to intercept him relatively easy: should catch the ball with one or two hands in a jump after a jerk.
Usually the attacker comes to the ball. In this case, the defender needs a short distance to gain the maximum possible speed and get ahead of the opponent on the way to the flying ball. With the shoulder and hands he cuts off the direct path of the opponent to the ball and seizes it.
Covering the ball on the throw. The defender, who has some advantage over the attacker in height and jumping ability, must try to prevent the ball flying out of his hands when he throws. The defender’s hand should be right next to the ball when he counteracts the throw. Then the bent hand is put on the ball from the side from above, and the throw can not be performed.
Possession of the ball in the fight for a rebound in front of his shield. After the attacker throws the defender must block the opponent’s way to the shield, take a
Then fight for the rebound, quickly and timely jump out to seize possession of the ball.
Jumping out for possession of the ball. Leap is performed as one or two feet after a short run-up or from a place. Jumping out and getting hold of the ball, the player in landing spreads his legs wide and bends his body to prevent an opponent to take advantage of the power struggle in relation to the shield and ball.
Out – the ball goes outside the playing area.
Rushing – A player in control of a live ball moving his feet beyond the limits set by the Laws.
Offence – a player controlling a live ball and doing more than the limits of the Laws.
3 seconds – An offensive player is in the “paint” (rectangular area under the ring) of the opponent for more than three seconds while his team possesses the live ball in the offensive zone.
5 seconds – the player does not part with the ball for five seconds when taking the throw-in.
A tightly guarded player does not start to lead, pass or take a shot at the ring for 5 seconds.
8 seconds – the team in possession of the ball in the back court did not put the ball in the front court within eight seconds.
24 seconds – the team was in possession of the ball for more than 24 seconds and did not take a shot at the ring. The 24-second count is reset if the ball touches the hoop. The attacking team may then rebound on offense and be entitled to another 24-second possession. If the defending team receives a foul or violation (other than the ball going out of bounds) or other stoppage of play, the attacking team is entitled to:
– A new 24-second possession if the throw-in occurs in the defensive zone of the team in possession of the ball;
– a new 24 second possession if the throw-in occurs in the defending zone of the team in possession; – A new 24 second possession;
– New 14-second possession if 13 seconds or less of possession remain.
Violations of returning the ball to the defensive zone (zone) – the team in possession of the ball in the offensive zone has moved it to the defensive zone.
A foul is a failure to follow the rules caused by personal contact or unsportsmanlike conduct. Types of fouls:
– personal – a foul to a player due to contact with an opponent;
If the player, who was pushed, at the time was making a shot and the ball not hit the basket, he shall be entitled to two free throws, which shall be made without interference from – behind the free throw line, which shall be made without interference from the free throw line. This 3.6 meter long line is drawn parallel to the front line at a distance of 4.6 meters from the front surface of the board. A team is awarded a point for a successful free throw. If one or both attempts are unsuccessful, the player is entitled to an additional shot. The athlete must remain behind the free throw line until the ball touches the ring or the backboard. Until this time, no player may enter the free throw area. If the last shot is unsuccessful, both teams may compete for the ball that bounced off the ring.
If desired, the team may waive the right to free throws and enter the ball from behind the side line together with its intersection with the center line. For an intentional foul (violation of the rules of the game) a player is always punished by two penalty shots.
A special form of foul is a technical foul. It is announced to the on-court player, coach or substitute for unsportsmanlike conduct, followed by a penalty – two free throws, which is carried out by any member of the opposing team. The ball is then put into play in the normal way. A coach or a substitute substitute player for unsportsmanlike conduct is penalized by one penalty shot, and the ball remains in the hands of the kicking team, which introduces it into play from behind the touchline together with a crossing of the center line.
A player who receives five personal penalties is automatically out of the game. In case of gross violation of the rules athlete may be disqualified. In any case, the eliminated player may be replaced by a substitute.
Constantly changing game situations requires high analytical activity and quick decision making. In the process of the game, one can get a high emotional load and experience great joy and satisfaction.
Basketball is one of the most popular games in our country. It is characterized by a variety of movements; walking, running, stopping, turning, jumping, catching, throwing and dribbling the ball, carried out in unison with opponents. Such a variety of movements contribute to improving metabolism, the activity of all body systems, form coordination.
Basketball has not only health and hygienic value, but also propaganda and educational. Practicing basketball helps to form persistence, courage, determination, honesty, self-confidence and a sense of teamwork. But the effectiveness of education depends primarily on how purposefully implemented in the pedagogical process interaction of physical and moral education.
Basketball as a means of physical education, found wide application in various parts of the physical education movement.
In the system of public education basketball is included in the program of physical preschool children, general secondary, secondary, vocational, specialized secondary and higher education.
Basketball is an exciting athletic game, which is an effective means of physical education. Not by chance it is very popular among schoolchildren. Basketball as an important means of physical education and health of children, included in the educational program of secondary schools, schools with polytechnic and industrial training, children’s sports schools, municipal departments of public education and sports departments of voluntary societies.
Consolidation of the results achieved and further improvement of sportsmanship is closely intertwined with the mass rehabilitation work and skilled training of the most talented young men and women reserves.
Constant struggle, which is carried out with the help of natural movements (running, walking, jumping), accompanied by painful efforts, has a very versatile impact on the psychological, physiological and motor functions of the person. By performing a large number of various movements at different tempos, directions, with different speeds and strains, you get a beneficial effect on the internal organs and systems of the body.