Relevance. Chocolate is a favorite delicacy of children and adults. Scientists are still arguing about the harm and benefits of chocolate to this day. Some experts believe that cocoa butter (the basis for chocolate production) prevents tooth decay. Others hold the opinion that chocolate, like all sweets, is bad for teeth.
I took up the topic of chocolate because I really like this treat. I really wanted to know how it came to be in our country, what it is made of, and what kind of chocolate it is. I also wanted to know if it’s true that it spoils your teeth and why you shouldn’t eat too much of it. And how harmful and healthy is chocolate?
Object of study: chocolate.
Research Subject: the effect of chocolate on people’s health.
Objective: to identify the beneficial and harmful properties of chocolate and their impact on the body.
Hypothesis: Let’s assume that chocolate brings not only harm, but also benefits to human health.
I will implement the solution of the goal through a number of tasks:
1. To get acquainted with the history of the origin of chocolate.
2. To collect information about the harms and benefits of chocolate.
3. Identify the effect of chocolate on human health.
4. Use the World Wide Web to learn about the production of chocolate.
5. To collect interesting facts about chocolate.
6. To find out in the process of research which chocolate is the most useful.
Research methods: analysis of literature and Internet-sources, generalization of findings, questionnaire survey, taking pictures of objects under study.
Chapter 1: Chocolate and its properties
1.1 History of chocolate
Chocolate is a confectionary product based on cocoa butter. It is a product of processing cocoa beans from the chocolate tree seeds, which are rich in theobromine and caffeine.
The most commonly encountered version of the word “chocolate” is derived from the Aztec word xocolatl, which literally means “bitter water” (nahuatl xocolli means “bitterness”, ātl means “water”).
Chocolate is one of the most controversial products among tasty treats. The history of chocolate goes back more than three millennia. In the early 16th century, Christopher Columbus brought cocoa beans to the Spanish king, which were used to make a strange drink, chocolate, a frothy, thick, syrup-like drink (Figure 1). Originally chocolate was only used as a drink. The Native American word for “chocolate” is translated as “bitter water” or “water and foam.
The Spanish conqueror Cortez really introduced chocolate to Europe. Ordinary people could not try the drink, it was very expensive, for one hundred grains of cocoa you could buy a good slave.
In 1875, after eight years of experimentation, the Swiss Daniel Peter brought solid milk chocolate to market for the first time. In 1879 the inventor Rudolf Lindt from Bern made the original device and began to produce chocolate that melted in your mouth.
The cacao tree is an evergreen woody plant that translates from Latin as “food of the gods. This tree grows only in warm and humid climates, in the heart of tropical forests, mainly in North and South America, Australia, and some islands in Asia.
Its hard fruits look like melons, each fruit has 20 to 40 seeds in rows, and these are called cocoa beans. Chocolate was first produced in factories in the 18th century, and only in the 19th century did chocolate bars appear.
For a long time, chocolate in Russia was considered a delicacy and an expensive product, typical of the bourgeois way of life.
Accordingly, the range of the product at that time was not great. Only in the early 1960s the Soviet government adopted a new food program, which paid special attention to the creation of mass, affordable milk chocolate. The result of Soviet confectioners’ work was the appearance of chocolate brand Alyonka, named, according to legend, after the daughter of Valentina Tereshkova (the first woman cosmonaut). In the twentieth century, hot chocolate became especially popular. It began to be produced by different companies.
Thus, the history of chocolate has more than three thousand years. In the twentieth century, hot chocolate became especially popular.
1.2 Production of chocolate
Chocolate is made from cocoa beans (Figure 3). Before chocolate can be made, the cocoa beans must be processed. And it all starts with roasting them. At the factory, the cocoa beans are first cleaned, graded, and roasted in order to get rid of excess moisture and achieve the desired flavor and aroma for the chocolate, and the beans themselves get a uniform dark-brown color. Roasting is a very important step in chocolate production, on which the quality of the future chocolate, its odor and flavor depend. After roasting, the cocoa beans are cooled, and then sent to a roasting machine, which separates the husks and crushes them into cocoa lumps. The roasted and peeled cocoa powder is thoroughly ground. The better the cocoa lump, the better the taste of the chocolate.
Cocoa mass contains a very valuable substance: cocoa butter which is the basis for making real chocolate. To obtain cocoa butter, the cocoa mass is heated to a certain temperature and then pressed in the heated state. This is how cocoa butter is separated from the solid residue, which is then used to make cocoa powder.
Cocoa mass, sugar and some of the cocoa butter are mixed in certain proportions. After mixing, the mass is milled. The higher the degree of grinding, the more delicate the taste. The transformation of crushed cacao beans into chocolate by mixing the various ingredients is a secret area in chocolate production. To make chocolate, cocoa butter, sugar, and vanilla must be added to the cocoa mass. These ingredients are mixed and kneaded until a smooth, homogeneous mass is obtained.
After mixing and kneading, the chocolate mass is then kneaded intensively at high temperatures. This is a long process, in the course of which excess moisture evaporates from the chocolate mass, eliminating incompatible flavors and aromas, lumps that are still present, and excessive bitterness is displaced.
The hot chocolate is first cooled, to 28°, and then reheated to 32°. If at least one of these steps is not followed properly, this has an immediate effect on the chocolate’s appearance and texture. After this, the chocolate is poured into heated moulds.
So, making chocolate is a very time-consuming process that requires that the production steps are not disturbed.
1.3 Types of chocolate
There are many varieties of chocolate. Chocolate can be: black, milk, porous, diabetic, etc. But originally, Native American tribes from Central and South America established a cult of drinking a liquid dessert made from cocoa bean powder, red chili pepper and water.
Spongy chocolate is obtained mainly from the chocolate mass, which is poured into moulds by 3/4 of its volume, placed in vacuum boilers and kept in the liquid state (at 40 C) for 4 hours. When the vacuum is removed due to the expansion of air bubbles, a finely porous structure of the bar is formed (Wispa, Air).
Diabetic chocolate is designed for diabetics. The chocolate contains sorbitol, xylitol, and mannitol instead of sugar.
Bitter chocolate belongs to the diet varieties of chocolate. Due to its low sugar content, it has a bitter taste with a subtle, salty aftertaste. The composition of such chocolate contains as much nonfat dairy products as possible. Nuts can be added as toppings. No sweet additives are added.
White chocolate is made according to a special recipe from cocoa butter, sugar, milk powder, vanillin without adding cocoa mass, so it has a creamy color (white). Chocolate contains less caffeine than coffee. Chocolate contains protein, calcium, vitamins B1 and B2, and iron.
So, of all kinds of chocolate, the most useful is considered to be a bitter chocolate. They have less sugar, but a lot of microelements and vitamins. It will not hurt your figure, will give you a good vitality and help you get out of hibernation during the long winter.
1.4 Composition of chocolate
Chocolate is a product of processing cocoa beans with sugar.
The composition of chocolate includes:
– carbohydrates – 5-5 5%;
– fat – 30-38%;
– protein – 5-8%;
– alkaloids (theobromine and caffeine) – about 0.5%;
– Tannins and minerals – about 1%.
– Energy value (per 100 g of product):
– chocolate – 680 calories;
– Chocolate candies – 460 calories;
– Cocoa – 400 calories.
– So, chocolate is quite a caloric product and its frequent consumption leads to addiction.
1.5 The benefits and harms of chocolate on the human body
In order to find out how healthy and harmful the chocolate is, we turned to several sources of information: online resources and a book by Matveev A. “Chocolate Cultural Revolution.
Opinions on the health effects of chocolate vary. Here is the scientific opinion on the most common “chocolate” issues .
Chocolate can be a very tasty medicine when consumed in moderation. Only one-third of a bar of chocolate per day is considered a healthy portion. Anything else is just dabbling. What are the health benefits of chocolate?
Chocolate can be eaten without any harm to health by adults (with no contraindications: allergies, diabetes):
daily – no more than 20-35 g.
per month – no more than 5 to 6 bars (100g each).
Children may eat chocolate from the age of 3 years, but no more than 100 grams per week.
Several experiments allowed the scientists to conclude that moderate consumption of chocolate can prolong human life by one year.
Chocolate is a source of energy, it contains potassium and magnesium, which are necessary for muscle function. Therefore, chocolate is good for children, as well as those who are engaged in sports.
Chocolate is good for your heart and blood vessels. Cardiologists have found that dark chocolate prevents the formation of blood clots on the walls of blood vessels, improves blood flow, heart and brain function.
Chocolate promotes immunity, if you use high quality bitter varieties.
Chocolate elevates your mood, its flavor evokes a sense of pleasure and pleasure.
Chocolate, which contains casein and calcium, helps protect the teeth in much the same way as milk does. However, the high sugar content overrides the health benefits of these products. Consequently, it is not chocolate that is bad for your teeth, but too much of it.
The consumption of chocolate not only affects the human body positively, but we also found out that the chocolate also brings harm to our body.
Chocolate is the culprit of overweight, because it is a high-calorie product, and when consumed in excess, the carbohydrates are deposited in the body in the form of fat.
Chocolate when eaten in large quantities can cause allergies, so it is not recommended to give it to children under 2 years.
Chocolate should not be eaten much at night, especially by children, as it can cause insomnia due to its caffeine content.
So, chocolate is more useful than harmful, but only eat it in moderation.
1.6 Interesting facts about chocolate
Chocolate is traditionally attributed magical, medical and mystical properties. For example, in Latin, cocoa trees are referred to as “Theobroma Cacao,” which means “food of the gods.
The most “chocolatey” countries in the world are Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, France, and the United States. It is in these states that people consume huge amounts of chocolate. And the confectionery traditions of Belgium and Switzerland are considered the best in the world.
Cocoa trees can grow for up to 200 years, but the fruiting period is only 25 years.
Virtually all cocoa trees are within 20 degrees of the equator, with 75% growing at 8 degrees on either side. Cocoa cultivation sites are located in 3 main regions: South and Central America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia/Oceania.
Each cocoa tree produces about 2,500 beans. It takes about four to five years for the first beans to appear.
International Chocolate Day is celebrated around the world on July 11.
Every year, mankind eats more than 600 thousand tons of chocolate.
Thus, there are a lot of interesting facts in the world about chocolate.