The quiz is designed to test your knowledge of the topic “The Sun and the Stars”. The test work is designed for 15 – 20 minutes and contains 6 questions, which require knowledge of the material 2 – 3 paragraphs. These questions can also be used for an oral frontal survey of students. Questions of independent work aimed at the formation of skills required by the program, as well as to monitor their degree of formation and the level of knowledge of students on the main issues of astronomy course.
Test work 4
Topic: “The nature of the bodies of the solar system”.
- What objects are part of the solar system.
- What are the planets?
- What bodies are called small planets or asteroids?
- What is the Kuiper Belt?
- What is the composition of the Oort cloud?
- In what direction do all the planets and asteroids rotate around the Sun?
- What is the radius of the planetary system?
- Based on what data can we assume that all the bodies that currently make up the solar system formed about 4.5 to 5 billion years ago?
- List the three components that make up all the bodies in the solar system.
- What holds the planets in their orbits around the Sun?
- What is the force that keeps spacecraft on their trajectories as they fly through the solar system?
- What causes the differences in the density of the atmospheres of the planets?
- List the main envelopes of the Earth’s globe.
- Why does the Earth have a radiation belt? What particles are included in its composition?
- What phenomena caused by the Earth’s magnetic field are observed in the upper layers of the atmosphere?
- What role does the Earth’s atmosphere play in its life?
- What explains the lack of atmosphere of the Moon?
- Why does the Moon look brighter than other lights in the night sky?
- What does the surface temperature of the different planets depend on?
- What are the results of studies of the chemical composition of the Moon?
- What explains the significant temperature variations on the lunar surface from day to night?
- What are the results of studies of the reverse side of the Moon?
- Why, before spacecraft flew around the Moon and photographed its back side, humans could only see half of it?
- What are the structure and physical properties of the upper layer of the lunar surface?
- How can we judge the difference in age of the craters observed on the Moon?
- Why are changes on the lunar surface much slower than on Earth?
- Name the three layers of the Moon.
- What phase must the Moon be in for a solar eclipse to occur? Lunar eclipse?
- What is the evidence of a joint origin of the Moon and Earth?
- Why can we talk about the long term cessation of lava outpourings and volcanic activity on the Moon?
- The solar system includes eight large planets with their satellites, dwarf planets, over 100,000 small planets (asteroids), many comets and meteor bodies (rocks of many different sizes), and streams of fine dust (meteor swarms).
- Planets are dark spherical bodies, comparable in size to the Earth.
- Asteroids are small solid bodies with sizes not exceeding hundreds of kilometers, the largest are spherical in shape, most of them irregular in shape, which move between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, forming an asteroid belt.
- Beyond the orbit of Neptune (about 55a.u.) is the Kuiper Belt, consisting of the dwarf planets Pluto, Erida, Makemaki, Ceres, Haumeda, etc., as well as a large number of smaller planets.
- The Oort Cloud is a hypothetical cloud consisting of ice blocks and comet nuclei, which reaches right up to the border of the solar system. It is currently assumed that the boundary of the solar system is over 100,000 a.u. from the Sun.
- All planets and asteroids revolve around the Sun in the direction of Earth’s motion, which is assumed to be straight. They form a planetary system that is part of the solar system.
- The radius of the planetary system is close to 4.5 -109 km – four and a half billion kilometers (30 a.u.) and is determined by the distance from the center of the Sun to Neptune. It takes about 4 hours for the light beam to reach the boundary of the planetary system.
- The oldest rocks found in the meteorites are around 4.5 billion years old. Rocks of the same age were found in samples of lunar soil delivered to Earth. Calculations of the age of the Sun gave a close value – 5 billion years. Based on these data we can assume the age of 4.5 – 5 billion years.
- Three components: rocky, icy, volatile. It is of these three components, in various ratios, that all the bodies of the solar system are made up.
- The addition of rectilinear motion by inertia and motion toward the Sun under the force of solar attraction.
- The mass of the planet and temperature.
- The main envelopes of the globe are the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.
- The presence of a magnetic field. Protons, ions, and electrons, which have the highest energy, move here.
- Protons, electrons and ions, getting from the radiation belt to the upper atmosphere near the poles, make its main components, nitrogen and oxygen, glow, causing auroras.
- It protects all living things from the destructive effects of ultraviolet and cosmic rays, reduces the diurnal temperature fluctuations, provides breathing and vital activity of flora and fauna.
- Because gravity on the surface of the Moon is 6 times less than on the surface of the Earth, it is much easier for gas molecules to leave the Moon, as it is enough to have a speed of about 2.4 km/s, so the Moon has no atmosphere, no hydrosphere and no noticeable magnetic field.
- Because the Moon is much closer to the Earth than any other celestial body.
- From the distance to the Sun, the presence of the planet’s atmosphere and its own sources of heat.
- In their chemical composition, lunar rocks are not as diverse as terrestrial rocks; in marine areas, basalt-type rocks predominate, in continental areas – anorthosite rocks.
- Lack of atmosphere, as well as high porosity and low thermal conductivity of the upper layer of the Moon.
- A global survey of the Moon has been completed and it has been determined that the Moon is dominated by a continental-type surface.
- The period of rotation of the Moon around its axis is equal to the period of its orbit around the Earth, so that it always faces the same side of the Earth.
- The structure is porous, strength is low, and in a vacuum the particles that make up the top layer stick together.
- By degree of destruction and sequence of formation.
- There is no air or water on the moon that causes erosion of the earth’s surface. Nor is there comparable geologic activity to that on Earth. The main source of lunar surface erosion is micrometeoroids.
- The crust, mantle, and core.
- In the phase of the new moon, when the Earth, Moon, and Sun line up in a straight line. In the phase of the full moon (lunar eclipse), when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are exactly in line.
- The age of rocks delivered from the Moon, determined by various methods, is close to the age of the Earth, indicating that they are of joint origin.
- No younger rocks have been found on the lunar surface. About 3 billion years ago the temperature of the Moon decreased significantly and volcanic activity on a large scale ceased. Since then, the Moon has remained virtually unchanged.
There are 6 questions in each option.
Option 1: 1; 6; 11;16; 21;26.
Option 2: 2; 7; 12; 17; 22;27.
Option 3: 3; 8; 13; 18; 23; 28.
Option 4: 4; 9; 14; 19; 24; 29.
Option 5: 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30.
Criteria and norms of marks for the answer:
The grade “excellent” is given if the student showed a full volume, high level and quality of knowledge on these questions, owns the culture of communication and scientific presentation skills, establishes a connection between theoretical knowledge and ways of practical activity: clearly, accurately and logically answers the questions asked.
A grade of “good” is given if the student presented the material logically and scientifically, but does not fully determine the practical relevance of theoretical knowledge: does not express his point of view on the issue, could not give a sufficiently complete answer to the questions posed.
A grade of “satisfactory” is given if the student made substantial errors in the disclosure of the question, does not correlate theoretical knowledge and its own practical activity, has difficulty in answering most questions.
Assessment “unsatisfactory” is put, if the student showed weak theoretical and practical knowledge, made gross errors in the disclosure of the question, could not answer the questions.