In order to save life and health in production and in the process of labor there are a number of legislative acts, normative legal documents, a set of economic, therapeutic and preventive and other measures. All of the above activities are a whole system, which is called labor protection.
Labor protection defines and studies the causes of accidents at work, as well as accidents, disasters, the emergence of occupational diseases. In order to eliminate these factors, a whole system of working conditions for the person working at production is created.
There are certain tasks before labor protection, which in their turn face the problem of realization of achievements and conclusions of other disciplines, which in their turn are closely connected with preservation of life and health of a man at production and in the labor process.
The priority task of labor protection is the training of production workers, production management workers, as well as the training of specialists in the field of injury prevention.
Types of occupational safety briefings.
Briefings of workers are summarized into introductory, unplanned, primary, unplanned, repeated and target briefings.
Unplanned briefing – this type of briefing is mandatory for persons who are newly hired, or workers who are transferred from one type of work to another.
The list of educational topics and basic questions includes:
– basic information about the organization, peculiarities of production;
– regulations on labor protection according to the legislation of the Russian Federation;
– provisions of the employment contract, working time regulations, benefits and compensation;
– rules of the enterprise, responsibility for violating certain rules;
– rules of conduct of the employees at the production site;
– main dangerous production factors at the production site where the employee will work;
– Sanitary and personal hygiene requirements at the production site;
– fire safety;
– Types of first aid to the injured;
Initial briefing at the workplace is conducted by the head of certain production areas in accordance with the approved requirements and norms of legislation.
A sample list of questions:
– general information about the equipment and technological process.
– The main hazardous and harmful factors in the given production area;
– safe maintenance of the workplace;
– equipment safety devices, dangerous zones of machines and mechanisms, electrical safety requirements;
– the procedure of checking the equipment and mechanisms before the work;
– methods and techniques of working with equipment;
– types of personal protective equipment for a particular area of work;
– safety at loading and unloading work, types of loading equipment and rules of its operation;
– possible causes of fires, explosions and accidents;
– measures to prevent injuries, actions in case of accidents at work;
Repeated briefing – all employees of the enterprise on the primary and introductory briefing.
Unscheduled briefing – the introduction of new provisions of the legislation, instructions on labor protection, changes in labor protection requirements and accidents, a break of more than 30 calendar days, the decision of the employer;
Target briefing – this type of briefing is carried out when carrying out one-time work, during public events.
All types of briefings should be recorded in a magazine, which meets all the requirements of Russian legislation.
2. Training of company employees.
The form, periodicity, duration and frequency shall be established by the employer. Employees are briefed within a month after being hired. Repeated briefing at work with hazardous and harmful factors shall be carried out at least once every three months. Other briefings are carried out as necessary because they are carried out on the eve of or as a consequence of some events. The frequency of these events can be unpredictable, and each time those involved must learn additional safety knowledge.
3. Training for supervisors and professionals.
When training managers and specialists in occupational safety and health, the main objective is to acquire knowledge, skills and abilities in this area and the ability to exercise control.
As a result of training, the specialists and supervisors shall be obliged to know:
– normative legal acts, legislative and other acts in the field of labor protection;
– functions of executive and state authorities which supervise and control occupational safety and health;
– organization and management of health and safety at work;
– impact of hazardous and harmful factors on the body and ways to protect against them;
– procedure for registration and accounting of accidents, as well as their investigation;
– the procedure for providing additional, social and compensation payments for difficult and harmful working conditions;
– the procedure for compliance with technical, sanitary and hygienic working conditions during technological operations;
Managers and specialists are trained at least once every three years. Training can be carried out in the organization itself with a commission for the verification of knowledge of safety.
Based on the above, we can conclude that labor protection is a whole system aimed at saving the life and health of an employee at the production site. Protection of employee’s rights, favorable working conditions are guaranteed to the employee by the state. The Federal Labor Inspectorate and special supervisory federal bodies are responsible for controlling the implementation of the guarantees.