Climbing is a type of basic movement – it is a cyclical movement, the basis of which is the short-term repetition of movement elements similar to walking, performed by alternate movements of the arms and legs. This movement involves a considerable mass of muscles. In addition, the process of climbing is characterized by an alternate contraction and relaxation of the muscles, which allows you to recover the energy consumption of the movement and a longer physical effort. Thanks to this, climbing exercises contribute to the development of large muscle groups – torso, shoulder girdle, arms, legs, develop flexibility of the spine, help to form the correct posture.
With climbing brings up dexterity, endurance, improve coordination abilities, etc.
A child learns the following types of climbing:
- crawling on all fours on a horizontal and inclined plane (on the floor, on a gymnastic bench, etc.);
- climbing on a vertical (gymnastic) wall, stepladder, etc., climbing, climbing over, climbing through,
Crawling is movement along the plane with the help of the lower and upper limbs.
Climbing is movement associated with the use of objects: in a gymnasium – ϶ᴛᴏ gymnastics wall, different ladders (vertical, horizontal, inclined), pole, rope.
Climbing – climbing under something by crawling.
Climbing – to climb (climbing, moving) through something, from one side of something to another, from one place to another; to climb, to climb to another place.
Climbing – to climb, to squeeze through something narrow, making it difficult to move.
Peculiarities of different types of climbing for 2-3 year old children
The desire to crawl and climb is very great in children. A 2-3 year old child crawls with great pleasure, confidently and quickly. At the beginning of the 3rd year of life children still like to crawl while lying on their stomachs alternately pulling arms forward and pulling themselves up on them. There are cases of sideways movement, i.e. a child moves on all fours, rearranging his or her feet slightly sideways (on the right or left) from the direction of movement. When climbing up the wall, all 2-year-old children put one leg to the other and then intercept it with their hands alternately, positioning themselves at the next height of the rail. When getting down, all children use a set-down step.
Exercises for forming the skill of climbing
Crawling on all fours:
- a straight line (a distance of 3-4 m);
- On a board on the floor;
- An inclined board raised at one end to a height of 20-30 cm;
- On a gymnastic bench.
- Rope (height 40-30 cm), etc.
- Climbing over a log, etc.
- Climbing in a way that is convenient for a child:
- a ladder-bracket,
- a gymnastic wall up and down (height of 1.5 m).
Methodical recommendations for teaching climbing technique
Gradually children are taught to crawl leaning on hands and feet which allows the child to relieve the load on the spine. Care must be taken to ensure that the upper shoulder girdle, arm and neck muscles work actively, which is a good prerequisite for correct posture. First, children are given exercises in crawling on all fours on the floor in any direction and then the teacher teaches them to crawl in a given direction, gradually complicating the exercises, including crawling, climbing over, crawling.
When teaching children of this age, the goal is not yet to teach them how to correctly climb and get down. At first, children are taught to climb with a more familiar step: the child holds on with both hands to one step, her feet are also on one step, then she moves alternately hands and feet to the next step, and so on.
The main thing is to form a sense of confidence in children: so that children can learn to go up to an object without fear, to go down confidently.
The teacher should always be nearby and always ready to help and encourage the child. Methodical instructions should be aimed at a feeling of confidence.
Peculiarities of climbing by children of 3-4 years old
In the second toddler group, the overwhelming majority of children are characterized by good coordination of movements in crawling. Children use different ways of crawling. Some kids put both hands forward at once, lean on them and at the same time move their legs. Others move their arms and legs forward alternately. In both cases, children can lean on their feet and hands or knees and palms.
Children of this age rather quickly master such types of movements as crawling through a hoop, crawling under an arc or a rope stretched 50-40 cm from the floor, etc. It is more difficult for them to crawl. Crawling in combination with balance exercises (crawling on a gymnastic bench in a standing position) and climbing a gymnastic wall are more difficult for them.
For children of the second youngest group the exercises with climbing on a gymnastic wall and an inclined ladder are very difficult. When climbing they poorly coordinate leg and arm movements and often show indecisiveness. Approximately 78% of three-year-old children use a prehensile step when climbing the wall, and 22% use a mixed method, i.e. they use both a prehensile step and an alternating one (each time the foot is placed on the next rail of the ladder span in height), the child’s hands are intercepted alternately. Before each new step the child’s hands are on the same rail.
When climbing, toddlers at age 3 use a mixed step in 11% of cases, and the rest climb down by placing one foot on top of the other on each rail.
Climbing at this age stage requires a child’s attention, considerable muscular strength and dexterity. These qualities are still poorly developed. Therefore children climb slowly, at a random pace.
Exercises for forming a skill of climbing:
Crawling on all fours along:
- a straight line (the distance increases to 6 m);
- Between the objects;
- around them;
- “bear-like” with the emphasis on the feet and palms.
Climbing under an obstacle (height 50 cm) without touching the floor with hands, etc:
- Climbing into a hoop, etc;
- Climbing over a log, etc.
- Climbing on a step-ladder, a gymnastic wall (1.5 m high).
Children also continue to improve their skills in the exercises which are carried out in the first little group with slightly more complicated elements.
Methodical recommendations for teaching climbing technique
A peculiarity of crawling exercises is that they are carried out almost without the teacher showing the movements, for which manuals are not designed. Crawling is more often carried out in a frontal or flow way of organization with the simultaneous active participation of all or most of the children in the group. For physical activity it is important that the kids crawl a certain distance. For this purpose, visual landmarks are used which show the child where to start and where to finish the distance.
All crawling exercises end with tasks of a straightening nature (raise your arms up, clap your hands over your head, etc.). Climbing under the rope (a stick which lies on the seat of two chairs) and climbing into the hoop children of this age perform sideways and chest-first. Climbing and climbing chest-first, the child comes up to the projectile, takes a step forward, squats a little, moves forward the head and torso, and then the second leg. When Climbing and climbing in the second way you need to turn to your left or right side, take a big step forward, bend down, move forward the head and torso, and then the second leg.
For children 3-4 years old, climbing exercises are very difficult, so it is too early to require them to climb in a variable way. They should go up and down in a random way – as they feel more comfortable. However, taking into account the children’s skills, it is already possible to start teaching them elements of correct climbing technique. When showing and explaining the movement, the teacher focuses on the hand grip on the rail (the thumb on the bottom of the rail, the rest on the top) and on putting the foot on the rail (with the middle of the foot).
Exercises in climbing should be provided with attentive guidance, high discipline of children. If necessary, the teacher helps the child to overcome fear.
Peculiarities of climbing by children of 4-5 years old
Due to increased physical capabilities, children can crawl a distance of up to 6-8 m. At the age of 4-5 years, children master crawling on their forearms and knees, pulling up with their hands while lying on a bench. From the age of 4 years, children have been observed to use three ways of climbing. In about 36% of the cases they use a priggering step, in 43% a mixed method, and in 21% an alternating method. From the age of 4-5 years, children use alternating arm movements. However, coordination in arm and leg movements has not yet been achieved. Children of 4 years old in 21% of cases use a mixed method of getting down.
Exercises for forming the climbing skill
Crawling and climbing are performed in different ways. However, in order to keep children’s interest, it is necessary to give the monotonous exercise a playful character.
New types of crawling, crawling and climbing are introduced:
- on all fours with support on the knees and forearms (“the cat crawls”);
- crawling on a horizontal and inclined board, a bench, on a gymnastic bench on the stomach by pulling up with the hands;
- crawling under a rope, an arc (height of 50 cm) with the right and left sides forward;
- crawling on all fours, leaning on feet and palms in different directions (in a snake, between the objects, etc.);
- climbing over the ladder to the other side;
- crossing from one passage of a gymnastic wall to the other (at the same level at the height of 2-4 slats).
Methodical recommendations for teaching climbing techniques
In an exercise with crawling under a cord, an arc, etc., children, not knowing how to calculate the height of an obstacle, crawl as they crawl, i.e. do not bend back, and therefore often catch the cord and unbend too early. The teacher, taking into account the child’s sense of touch, stimulates the appearance of the correct skill. He suggests bending down. Teaches the child to crawl to the right and left sides, moving with butt steps.
As children master the alternating step when climbing, they begin to be taught rhythmic coordinated actions – the unimanual and unimanual ways characteristic of the older group. For those children who master the movements well, it is necessary to complicate the tasks. Make sure that while climbing up and down preschoolers try not to miss the bars and step on each of them with one foot. Insurance of children by a teacher is obligatory.
Peculiarities of climbing for kids of 5-6 years old
Children of 5-6 years old have good skills of different kinds of crawling. When performing this exercise they use different ways. Also children show good skills in climbing, overcoming, and crawling of different kinds. When climbing on the wall children show great confidence and determination.
For older preschoolers, the distribution of climbing on the wall is as follows: about 19% of children use a priggering step, 43% use a mixed step, and 38% use an alternating method of placing their feet on the ladder rails.
Most 5 year old children move down stairs with a multi-step method (about 57%), 29% use a mixed method, and 14% of this age group use an alternating step.
Exercises for climbing skills
The older children continue improving the crawling skills learned in previous years. New types of crawling are introduced:
- on all fours in alternation with walking, running, stepping/crawling over obstacles;
- crawling over several objects in a row;
- crawling on all fours (distance 3-4 m), pushing a ball with the head;
- crawling on a gymnastic bench, leaning on forearms and knees;
- crawling on the floor;
- pulling up on a bench on their knees;
- moving with hands, feet, the whole body while sitting on a bench;
Crawling backwards on a bench, resting on the forearms and knees.
In older groups, crawling is most often included in a set of exercises or in movement games in combination with other movements – walking, jumping, running.
- Climbing in different ways:
- over several objects in a row;
- Over an obstacle (log, bench);
- Jumping from one passage of a gymnastic wall to another (at the same level at a height of 4-6 slats);
- A diagonal step with upward and downward movement to the right and to the left;
- Climbing through
- Climbing through the hoop in different ways;
- between bars, etc.
- on a gymnastic wall (height of 2.5 m) with change of pace,
- climbing on the wall with climbing over to the other side (if both walls are open to the other side);
- climbing on the rope (begin to teach trained children).
Methodological recommendations for teaching climbing technique
Crawling is more often done in a frontal or flow way with the simultaneous active participation of all or most of the children in the group. It is not recommended to include an element of competition when doing kneeling crawling exercises because children, rushing to the goal, do not calculate their movements and can injure their kneecaps.
Children of this age have higher requirements when doing climbing exercises: obligatory performance of an alternating step when climbing a gymnastic wall (ladder), proper coordination of hand and foot movements, the ability to climb quickly and rhythmically without missing the rungs.
When teaching climbing on a rope, a large place is occupied by introductory exercises. In the older group, they first give an exercise for mastering grasping and intercepting the rope with hands. Then move on to mastering grasping the rope with the legs. At the end, the children are taught to go down from the rope. When climbing up the rope, the teacher should hold the end of the rope.
When teaching climbing, it is advisable to use a rope with overlaps (knots) placed 15-20 cm apart. The overlay on the rope creates support for the feet and helps to master the interception with the hands and feet. After that, climbing on the rope without overlays is given.
The teacher cannot always use direct demonstration to teach crawling and climbing because the equipment, with the exception of the non-standard gymnastics wall, is designed for children. The exercise can be shown by a prepared child whose actions are commented on by the teacher. Often, especially in the beginning of training, an explanation is used: the teacher calls an action and children reproduce it. If necessary, the teacher corrects children’s actions.
While performing any kind of climbing, the teacher must provide insurance and provide the necessary assistance. To prevent injuries, gymnastic mats are placed under the apparatus.
Peculiarities of climbing for children 6-7 years old
Children of 6-7 years old can easily do all kinds of climbing, crawling, climbing over and through. Most children have developed the ability to climb the wall in an alternating method of raising their arms and legs. However, when moving down, most children use a mixed method. There are children who still use a set-up step when climbing down from the wall. Also a small part of preschool children in the preparatory group confidently use an alternating method of setting feet and hands when getting down.
Exercises for forming the skill of climbing
Skills in crawling, crawling through, crawling up, climbing in different ways are improved. All exercises studied in previous years are used with elements of complication. Children are taught to crawl with the same and different names.
Teaching crawling is carried out by complicating the ways and conditions of crawling: on the floor at a certain distance, on a limited surface (gymnastic bench, ribbed board, ladder). When crawling on all fours children can lean on hands and knees, on feet and hands, on knees and forearms; crawling on stomach and back on a gymnastic bench, pulling up with hands and pushing off with feet.
Crawling between the rungs of a gymnastic wall, put on the side of the ladder, a hoop, etc. performed in different ways. The distance between the rungs of the ladder at least 40 cm. Climb through the hoop from the top, bottom, holding one or two hands, put on the floor hoop reached through sideways and straight ahead.
Climbing under an arch, a gymnastic bench in several ways in a row (height 50-35 cm).
Climbing is used when passing from one aid to another: from passage to passage of a gymnastic wall, from an inclined board or ladder to a vertical wall; over the top of a stepladder, etc. Children are given the task of climbing over higher obstacles.
Climbing is performed in a mixed form with support on feet and a hand grip. Ladders arranged horizontally, inclined or vertically are used for the exercise. Both horizontal and inclined ladders are climbed using the rungs and side bars (if the ladder is 40 centimeters wide), while vertical ladders are only climbed using the rungs.
Climbing on a gymnastic wall is carried out with a change of pace, preservation of coordination of movements, the use of crossed and homonymous movement of arms and legs, climbing from a span to a span diagonally.
Methodical Recommendations for Teaching Climbing Techniques
Crawling must necessarily be combined with straightening, stretching, and jumping up. Children of this age must meet all the following requirements: climbing on a ladder in an alternate step; proper coordination of movements of hands and feet; the ability to climb quickly and rhythmically without missing a rung. However, it is allowed that they should use an easier for them side-step when getting down.
Children climb up the ladder much faster and more confidently than they get down, although it requires considerable effort to lift their own body weight. When getting down, muscle tension is less, but greater courage, determination and certain spatial representations are needed, because a child cannot yet see where to put his or her leg, but needs to feel, palpate the support. It is necessary to train children resourcefulness, the ability not to be confused in a difficult unexpected situation, for example, calmly and quickly groping for the bar with which his leg was thrown off. In this case, we must ensure that while climbing up and down preschoolers did not miss the rungs and stepped on each of them with one foot.
Climbing ladders is less often used in outdoor games, more often offered as exercises. When doing climbing exercises, the teacher should always stand next to the child performing the movement and, if necessary, provide assistance.