Throwing, one of the types of basic movements, is an acyclic exercise and is a coordinate and complex motor action. There are 4 phases of throwing:
Preparatory phase – initial position, depending on the type of throw:
from the chest – the parallelism of the feet on the width of the foot, the hands in front of the chest;
from behind the head – feet parallel to each other, hands in the air, pointed behind the head;
from shoulder with one hand – cross-eye coordination, throwing object in right hand, left foot one step ahead, body weight equally distributed.
Throwing is a technically complex movement, involving a large number of body movements. Physical qualities such as dexterity, coordination of arms, trunk and legs, good eye-hand coordination, balance, spatial orientation skills, as well as the reaction of small muscles are required to perform this movement.
In terms of technical characteristics, exercises of this type are divided into throwing and preparing for throwing – rolling, tossing the ball with catching and without catching, throwing with catching and without catching balls, balls, sandbags, hoops, as well as natural material, etc.
At preschool age children are taught to throw objects at a distance and at a goal from a place. Usually the first precedes the second.
In distance throwing the main effort is aimed at mastering the correct techniques. Preschoolers practice throwing power in accordance with the distance.
When throwing to the target, children focus their attention on hitting the specified object. Performing this movement requires concentration, concentration, purposefulness, and effort of will.
Preschoolers are taught a variety of ways to throw: from behind the head, from behind the back over the shoulder, with a straight hand from above, with a straight hand from the side.
Throwing from behind the head. Child facing in the direction of the throw, right foot on the toe; if the throwing is done with the right hand, the ball is held with fingers so that it does not touch the palm. The hand with the ball is in the hand bent at the elbow at face level. First, you must shift the weight of the body on the right leg, leaning back as much as possible; at the same time, the hand with the ball is the shortest way to take back behind the head. The right leg in this position will be slightly bent at the knee joint, the left leg is straight, resting on the heel.
When throwing, bending the right leg at the knee joint, shift the center of gravity (not mass) forward to the left leg. The child, bending at the waist, moves into a “taut bow” position. Not staying in this position, he begins to bring his arm forward to throw. The arm movement should be whipping, like a whip. First the shoulder is advanced, then the forearm, then the hand with the ball.
Throwing from behind the back over the shoulder with right hand. Initial position: right leg back slightly wider than shoulders, torso slightly turned towards throwing arm, right arm half-bent at the elbow in front of the chest and the left arm along the torso. During the swing the torso turns toward the throwing arm and leans back. Weight of body is shifted to leg and right arm pulled back. During the throw the right leg is straightened and the torso is turned forward while straightening. In the final phase of the throw the body weight is transferred to the leg in front. The right leg is put on the left leg. The left hand should be thrown with the same pattern.
Throwing with straight arm from above. Initial position: feet slightly wider than shoulders, right arm back, right hand with an object (sack or ball) – along the body. Right hand moves up and back in the swing, then moves forward and throws the apparatus with the brush.
Throwing straight arm from below. Initial position: feet a little wider than shoulder width, right arm half-bent at elbow in front of chest. Right arm at swinging arm back – down, throw with forward – upward motion.
Throwing with straight arm from the side. Starting position: feet a little wider than shoulder width, right leg back, right arm with object along the body. During the swing the torso is deflected, right arm is taken back to the limit, the body weight is shifted to the right leg bent at the knee. During the throw the right leg is straightened, the torso turns to the left-front, and the right arm is carried forward and the brush throws the object.
Peculiarities of throwing children 2-3 years old
Children 2-3 years old do not yet have a real skill in throwing, although they have a great need to roll, move and throw things. Mastering the technique of throwing requires good judgement, strength, dexterity, and coordination of movement of arms, legs, and torso. These qualities are not sufficiently developed at an early age. For this reason, toddlers:
do not know how to assume an initial posture and do not aspire to it;
they do not swing and push away the object well;
cannot push an object in a given direction;
throw objects weakly and at short distances.
Exercises for throwing skills
Throwing begins when children acquire some ball skills. Therefore, a child must be taught to pick up, hold, and carry the ball with two hands and then with one hand before special training exercises can be started.
In the initial training of throwing and catching, individual actions with the ball are of great importance. At this age, we recommend exercises that prepare a child to throw: rolling, throwing and catching balls, balls and other objects with one or both hands from behind the head. The main goal of these exercises is to teach a child to vigorously push or throw an object in a given direction. When children learn to vigorously push the ball away from themselves, children begin to master throwing the ball forward and upward and throwing the ball to the teacher. To teach children the ability to assess the direction of the ball and exercise the necessary muscle effort given the exercise of rolling the ball from a low slide.
Regular performance of various tasks with one or both hands prepares kids to learn different ways of throwing.
The content of exercises for children of the first infant group (2-3 years):
Rolling the ball from a slide or slope and running after it;
Rolling the ball to an instructor with both hands while sitting or standing;
Rolling the ball to each other from a distance of 1-1.5 meters;
throwing the ball with both hands from below forward and upward;
throwing the ball to the teacher;
throwing a big ball with two hands through a rope;
throwing a small ball with one hand (right and left hand) through a rope stretched at the level of a child’s raised hand from a distance of 1-1.5 m.
Methodical recommendations for teaching throwing technique
Rolling a ball occupies a large place in our work with children. Children must learn to push off the ball vigorously in any direction, then in a particular direction. The teacher should encourage children to push the ball simultaneously with both hands, fingers and hands should be especially active, if necessary, repeatedly showing the movement to those who have difficulty.
When teaching ball skills, it is necessary to have enough balls to provide them for everyone who wants to play.
When rolling the ball down a slide, a board with a rim on the edges you can have large and small balls.
Just as in rolling, it is necessary to show and teach children to throw the ball with a simultaneous push of both hands. At first it is easier for children to throw a ball holding it from below, then they try to throw with bent arms from the chest, raising the ball over their heads or dropping it behind their heads on bent arms. Teachers show children these different ways of throwing, but do not insist on necessarily perform any of them. When teaching possession of the ball the teacher shows the movements in the leading place.
Peculiarities of throwing to 3-4 year old children
Throwing exercises are still very difficult for children of 3-4 years old. By the age of 3, children gradually learn the correct technique of throwing to distance. It is more difficult for children of this age to master the skill of throwing small balls at a goal.
Peculiarities of throwing of children of 3-4 years old:
The initial pose of the child when throwing is extremely generalized, indifferent to the distance and direction of the throw;
Inability to turn the torso in the direction of the throwing arm;
Inability to coordinate his or her movements well;
sluggish swing, does not merge in time with the subsequent throw
there is often a rather long pause between the swing and the throw, when the child tries to get closer to the goal of the throw;
Due to a weak swing, they cannot calculate the strength and distance of the throw, or observe the accuracy of the direction of the throw (the throw is sharp, with a downward direction);
Throwing objects into the distance is not so much forward and upward as down and forward: this happens because the ejection (release) of the object from the hand occurs with a lag;
the child’s aiming consists only in looking in the right direction (when throwing to the target);
throwing is done with a bent arm from the shoulder, not straightening it when throwing;
Children of this age catch the ball very uncertainly because of their inability to determine the direction and speed of the ball flying toward them, poor coordination of movements in general. In this case children:
straighten their arms together towards the ball in advance;
strain their arms and shoulders, squeeze their fingers tightly or spread them wide;
stand still and wait until the ball is in their hands.
When rolling the ball in a straight line, children have difficulty vigorously pushing the ball away from themselves, as well as performing pushing in the right direction – straight ahead.
Exercises for forming the skill of throwing
For 3-4 year old children, throwing exercises are still a significant difficulty. The simplest and most accessible exercises with a ball for children ages 3-4 is rolling a ball. Children learn to roll the ball in a straight line, to each other, into the goal. Rolling from different starting positions sitting feet apart, sitting on heels, standing feet apart. Exercises for teaching ball rolling in a straight line:
rolling the ball straight from a landmark;
Rolling a ball on a bench holding it with the hand;
rolling the ball on an inclined bench;
rolling the ball into the goal;
rolling the ball between objects placed at a width of 60 cm.
Rolling the ball to the goal (bowling), etc.
The most difficult exercises for children aged 3-4 years are throwing the ball upward, forward and upward, to the teacher, against the wall, on the ground (to the floor), etc.
The most complex exercises for children ages 3-4 are throwing balls at a goal and at a distance. Throwing at a horizontal and vertical target is widely used in the second junior group; the target is 1.5-2 m away from children and the height of the center of the target is 1.2 m. For this purpose in work with younger preschool children such exercises are used as:
hitting the ball into the basket,
hitting the ball through a hoop,
knocking down pins, etc.
When rolling, throwing and catching the ball introduced exercises in pairs. Children are taught to throw the ball with both hands in different ways: from the chest, from behind the head, seeks to perform the throw in this manner. They play games with the ball.
Methodological recommendations for teaching throwing technique
When throwing, it is desirable that kids do not squat, but stand, leaning forward. To do the exercise in pairs, the teacher should pair up the children so that the exercise is most effective. A better combination is as follows: a child who is confidently rolling the ball with one who is still bad at the task, not able to send the ball accurately in the right direction. If both children are bad at rolling the ball, they quickly lose interest in the exercise.
Children perform throwing from a distance arbitrarily. When throwing the ball from a distance, the teacher teaches the children to give the ball the right trajectory to throw.
When throwing upward, the teacher constantly reminds the children that at first they should throw it low, and when the exercise succeeds, they can throw it higher. When catching the ball, draws children’s attention to the fact that when throwing upwards it is more convenient to catch the ball from below, in palms, with fingers spread (loosely) apart; the ball thrown down, it is easier to catch, embracing it from both sides. If the ball bounces too high, it can be caught by placing your palms underneath.
It is necessary to constantly resort to the help of visual reference points while teaching throwing. The teacher should complicate the task in time.
Peculiarities of throwing by children of 4-5 years old
Children’s abilities in throwing and catching objects at the age of 5 increase due to an increase in physical strength, development of coordination of movements and eye gaze. Their ability to give force to the throw improves. With the development of muscle strength, including the shoulder joint, a child’s throwing range increases.
Children ages 4-5 are more confident and accurate:
throw the ball to each other and catch it, which allows them to incorporate this movement into games more often;
can toss a ball in a circle while standing 1.5 meters apart;
can throw the ball against the wall and catch it (sometimes they have difficulty commensurate with the strength of the push and the possibility of catching the bounced ball: sometimes they throw too sluggishly and the ball falls against the wall; sometimes they throw strongly and sharply and the ball bounces over their heads).
Children of this age are making some progress in catching objects, not so hard to meet the flying ball, trying to catch it with their hands. But children are still in a hurry to wrap their whole hand around the ball and press it to the chest.
Exercises to form the skill of throwing
In the middle group children have already accumulated experience handling the ball, so the motor tasks become more difficult. The content of exercises for children in the middle group (4-5 years).
Rolling the ball:
each other from a distance of 1.5-2 m;
throwing it into the goal (width 50-40 cm) from a distance of 1.5-2 m;
hitting objects (distance of 1.5-2 m);
Between sticks, lines, cords (length of a lane 2-3 m).
Throwing the ball:
upwards and catching (at least 3-4 times in a row);
Throwing it to the ground and catching it;
Throwing the ball to each other and catching it from a distance of 1-1.5 m;
two hands from the chest through a net or a rope stretched at the height of the child’s raised hand (standing at a distance of 2 meters);
two arms from behind the head in a standing and sitting position;
against the wall and catching (in individual games).
Kicking the ball:
against the ground with two hands while standing on the spot;
bouncing the ball with one hand.
to the distance with the right and left hand (by the end of the year to a distance of at least 3.5-6.5 m);
The horizontal target from a distance of 2-2.5 m with the right and left hand;
vertical target (height of the target center 1.5 m) from a distance of 1.5-2 m with the right and left hand.
Methodical recommendations for teaching throwing technique.
Children should throw the ball more freely with soft, relaxed hand movements. Children should be reminded that when catching the ball to stretch their arms forward as if to meet the flying ball, and then, after catching it, gently bend their arms, pulling the ball to them, but do not press it to your chest. Well mastered this movement can be considered someone who manages without stopping and losing the ball to throw and catch it at least 3-4 times.
After children have learned to throw the ball on the ground and catch it, the teacher offers standing bouncing the ball on the ground several times in a row without stopping with two and then one hand. In this movement, we must explain and show children that the ball should meet with the palm of his hand with fingers spread, as if to wrap and somewhat delay the ball, gently press on top of him. Children often make the mistake of slamming the ball with a palm tight with closed tense fingers.
When teaching preschoolers catch the ball after it bounces off the floor it is necessary to show how to keep your hands while catching the ball: fingers slightly bent “cup”, arms half-bent, in front of the chest.
The children of the middle group improve coordination of movements, the ability to give strength to the throw. This allows the teacher to clarify some elements of technique. Teaching throwing, the teacher explains and shows children the correct throwing posture, paying attention to the position of the torso, the parallelism of the feet at the width of the foot, throwing the ball forward and upward.
The teacher carefully monitors that children throw with both right and left hands – it is important for the harmonious development of both hands, to prevent the occurrence of posture disorders. If children are not specifically taught to throw with their left hand, then most of them will predominantly throw with their right hand.
Later on, skills in throwing objects at a distance and to the goal are improved in a variety of movement games and when performing interesting tasks of a playful nature for children.
Peculiarities of throwing by children of 5-6 years old
Throwing skills are further developed in the older group. The older kids of 5-6 years old already have a certain skill in throwing, but some of them are not stable enough. In most cases children know how to
take the right starting position;
Swing their arms in a correct way;
Turn their bodies in the direction of the throwing arm;
match their movements with the force and direction of the throw;
Hit the target less accidentally;
Throw from a distance of 2-3 meters from the target.
Children of this age have an increasing length of throwing distance.
Most children prefer to throw objects with the stronger hand (usually the right hand), as a result of which there is a significant difference in the results of throwing with the right and left hand. Throwing and catching movements of 5-year-old children are more relaxed, free, without unnecessary stress, and to some extent automated. Children 5 years old throw the ball upwards, against the ground and catch it much more naturally.
Exercises for forming throwing skills
First of all, the skills learned in the previous age group are consolidated.
Exercises for the older group (5-6 years)
Rolling a ball:
with hitting objects (pins, cups, etc.);
“snaking” between objects.
Throwing the ball:
upwards and catching it with both hands (at least 10 times in a row);
upwards and catching it with one hand (at least 4-6 times in a row);
throwing the ball to each other with clapping;
and catching it from sitting position;
each other and catch with a turn around;
each other and catch with a bounce from the ground;
Catch and return to each other while moving;
throw a stuffed ball (weight up to 1 kg) with both hands from the chest and from behind the head.
Kick the ball:
on the ground with both hands while standing in place (at least 10 times in a row);
bouncing the ball with both hands moving forward in a straight line at a distance of 5-6 m;
hitting the ground with one hand (right and left), moving forward;
throwing to the wall with a clap, turn and a bounce from the ground.
to the horizontal target from below with the right and left hand from a distance of 3-4 m;
vertical target (the target which is 2 m off the ground) with the right and left hand;
throwing objects of different weight into the distance with the right and left hand.
Throwing the ball:
in a basketball basket.
At older ages children learn to perform:
throwing in different ways: from below, from the chest, from the head, from behind the head with one hand, at an angle, etc;
different swing types (circular arm swing with a turn of the body, circular arm swing in front of the chest, etc.).
Methodical recommendations for teaching throwing technique
Exercises with balls are performed by children:
the whole group at once (throwing up, against the ground and catching, rebounding);
half of the group (rolling, throwing, throwing to the distance) or in columns (throwing to the goal).
Using the rolling skills children learned in the previous groups, the teacher makes sure that children stick to the direction exactly and differentiate their efforts depending on how far away the objects are between which they need to roll the ball. Children must understand that the success of the exercise is not so much a strong and vigorous push, as frequent gentle pushes. The ball or ball should not roll far to the side.
In the preparatory group, the process of formation of throwing acquires a complete form, there is work on the technique of performance of throwing, fusion.
Achieving conscious mastery of this or that way of throwing, the teacher offers the child to tell how he or she intends to throw the object. As children master the exercises, they play games based on different types of throwing (ring toss, towns, etc.).
The teacher reminds the children to be careful when throwing the ball, explaining that the one who catches it should not stand still and wait for the ball to fall into their hands. He should follow the direction of the flying ball, correctly calculate and execute the movement – step forward or, on the contrary, move further away, move aside, squat, jump.
The teacher continues to make sure that children exercise both right and left hands.
As children expand their abilities, they are offered creative tasks – to come up with new ball game combinations. Skills in throwing objects at a distance and at the goal are improved in a variety of movement games and when performing interesting tasks for children of a game nature.
Throwing at a distance and to the target is improved in a variety of movement games and when performing interesting for children tasks of a game nature.
Peculiarities of throwing by 6-7 year old childrenChildren’s movements become more precise and coordinated in their seventh year. With systematic training 6-7 year old children significantly improve their ball skills. Preschoolers at this age:
Are free to hold the ball, pass it and throw it;
Can follow the flight of the ball and rush in the direction of the flying ball, trying to catch it;
become more correct and free, reaching a certain level of perfection in such ball movements as throwing to each other, catching, throwing to the goal.
The child of the seventh year of life is able to understand the essence of exercises with a ball:
During these exercises, he should be able to determine the distance, the trajectory of the ball flight, its weight and elasticity;
be able to navigate on the court, to find a more comfortable place to play the game.
The formation of these skills is extremely important for the organization of appropriate interactions of playing in the team of children.
At this age there is still a significant difference in the quality of throwing and in quantitative indicators of throwing with the right and left hand (worse indicators of throwing with the left hand). Gender differences are more clearly visible in the development of throwing skills in children: boys have better performance than girls.
Exercises to develop the throwing skill
Exercises in throwing objects for children 6-7 years old become much more complex. On the basis of already existing movements there is an opportunity to form quite complex actions with the ball, the skills of performing them in certain ways.
Rolling the ball:
each other with a stuffed ball.
Throwing the ball:
up, and catching with both hands (at least 20 times in a row);
throwing the ball up and catching it with one hand (not less than 10 times in a row);
throwing the ball to each other with a clap, with a turn, with a bounce from the ground, in an oblique direction;
throwing to each other in different positions: facing and back, kneeling, sitting stool, lying;
throwing a stuffed ball forward from below, from the chest, over the head backwards.
Kicking the ball:
on the ground alternately with one hand and the other hand several times in a row;
bouncing the ball with both hands on the ground, moving at a distance of 6-8 m;
Hit the ground with one hand moving forward in a straight line;
and the ground, moving in a circle;
on the ground, moving “in a snake”;
over the net by several players and passing to each other (elements of volleyball).
to the horizontal target with the right and left hand from a distance of 4-5 m;
Throwing to a distance of 6-12 m with the right and left hand;
Vertical target with right and left hand;
in the target from the initial position kneeling, sitting, lying;
driving target with right and left hand;
distance from several steps;
Distance and upwards of objects of different weight and shape.
Throwing a ball:
in a basketball basket from a place and with 2-3 steps.
Throwing and catching the ball from the wall with different tasks:
with a bounce off the ground;
With a turn in a circle;
In an oblique direction;
With jumping over the bounced ball.
At this age, the technique of throwing in different ways and different types of swings is perfected. Active use of movement games and games with elements of sports games.
Methodological recommendations for teaching throwing technique
In the preparatory group the teacher tries to strengthen children’s correct ways of throwing, throwing and catching, throwing to the goal and into the distance. The role of independent action with the ball increases significantly. Good possession of the ball, allows you to offer children more complex tasks. Mandatory training is provided to guide the ball with his right and left hand. Strengthen the skills of throwing and throwing in games that combine subgroups of children. Sports exercises should be used more extensively. Children can make their own movements at the game wall and can come up with interesting ways of kicking and catching a ball: from under a hand, standing with their backs, etc.
For children of 6-7 years old, explanations and instructions are in the lead. It is already possible to demand from them to perform the movement consciously.
4. Conclusion .
I would like to end my master class with the words of educator and school system reformer John Holt:
“To learn is to ask questions. In order to ask questions, a child needs faith in himself, and an educator needs the ability to support it.