It is already impossible to imagine the modern world without e-mail. Hundreds of millions of mailboxes, trillions of messages every year, terabytes of data every day. E-mail address has become as obligatory for modern communication as a home address and a phone number.
E-mail – (Electronic mail) – software for the transfer of text messages and attached files through a computer network. By the principle of the action resembles the usual mail.
E-mail is historically the first information service of computer networks and does not require high-speed and high-quality lines of communication. Once upon a time it was the only service on the Russian network.
E-mail – a service of the Internet, which allows to exchange electronic messages through a computer network.
The main feature of e-mail is that the information is sent to the recipient not directly, but through an intermediate link – an electronic mailbox, which is a place on the server where the message is stored until it is requested by the recipient.
E-mail is a technology and its services for sending and receiving electronic messages over a distributed computer network.
E-mail has already become an indispensable means of business and personal communication that many can not imagine how to live without it. This is especially true for our country, where the quality of ordinary postal communication is low, and the tariffs for long-distance telephone calls are too high. In this situation, e-mail comes to the rescue.
From the very beginning of the development of the Internet, e-mail was the most popular service on the World Wide Web.
And now we will listen to a report about when e-mail first appeared, and who was the initiator of its creation.
The creation of e-mail is a turning point in the history of the Internet. Thanks to e-mail, first thousands and then millions of people eagerly joined the Internet. E-mail quite unexpectedly for many revived epistolary genre, which after the invention of the telephone predicted the imminent death. Was it possible to assume that a modern person would write and receive dozens and hundreds of letters every day, and that the total daily number of messages would exceed one billion? Today it is possible to insert into an electronic envelope not just text, but also a photo, sound and even video, and in order to get a free mailbox, you only need to have access to the Internet.
To work with e-mail you need special e-mail programs, and for any computer platform there are a large number of e-mail programs.
Hence the question arises: how to register your mailbox and send a message?
In order for an email to reach the addressee, it must, in addition to the message itself, contain the email address of the recipient of the letter.
E-mail address is written in a particular form and consists of two parts, separated by the symbol @: user_name@server_name.
The first part of the e-mail address (user _name) is arbitrary and is specified by the user when registering the mailbox. The second part (server_name) is a domain name of the mail server where the user registered his/her mailbox.
And here is where the @ sign, which we call the dog, came from on the computer keyboard, we will tell you … / student’s message/.
For your mailbox to work, you need to register.
A conditional division of email addresses:
ISP (mailbox on the server of an ISP – organization-provider of network services);
corporate (mailbox on the server at place of work);
commercial (mailbox on the server of paid mail service);
free (box on the server of free mail service, for example: mail.ru, yahoo.com, yandex.ru, rambler.ru, hotmail.com).
What is a mailbox?
A mailbox is a part of the disk space on a server with a certain name (address), where e-mail information for Internet users can be stored.
You can work with e-mail with the help of a mail program (e-mail client) installed on the user’s computer or with the help of a browser, with a web interface.
Mail program (e-mail client, mail client) – software installed on the user’s computer for receiving, writing, sending, storing and processing the user’s e-mail messages.
In an e-mail forwarding system, a mail server (e-mail server) is also required. A mail server is a computer program that sends messages from one computer to another. Mail servers run on host computers on the Internet, and mail clients must be available to every e-mail user.
Mail programs usually also provide the user with many additional services for working with mail (selecting addresses from the address book, automatic sending messages to specified addresses, etc.).
The program Microsoft Outlook Express is the simplest mail client. It is included in the standard package of Windows 98, XP, Vista.
It is available on every computer running this operating system.
Widely popular among users are: The Bat! and the free mail clients Mozilla Thunderbird, Crawler Email, Incredimail.
Each message that enters the mail server automatically receives its unique identification number that is also recorded in the server’s log file. This is done so that in case of a problem, you can analyze the log files to determine the cause of the failure. In addition, the identification numbers are used to track down spammers and electronic terrorists.
Each network service must have its own protocol. It defines the order in which the client and server programs interact. It determines what this or that party can or cannot request, what the party can or must not respond to. It also determines in what form the request must be made and how the reply must be presented.
E-mail does not use one application protocol as other Internet services, but two. One protocol is used to send mail and the other is used to receive it. The need for two protocols is related to security requirements. So, for example, when sending messages one does not have to check the identity of the sender – this is similar to the fact that the letter is thrown in a street mailbox. Receiving messages is another matter. Here you have to show your rights and be identified. So, for example, when receiving registered letters at the post office, you must always show your passport or a replacement document. No one will get hold of someone else’s mail.
For sending to the server and for sending between servers they use a protocol called SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). It doesn’t require identification.
To receive incoming mail, the protocol used is Post Office Protocol 3 (Post Office Protocol 3, version 3). It requires identification, i.e. a Login and a Password that confirms the validity of the name.
SMTP and POP3 are application protocols, i.e. they are built on top of the basic Internet protocols TCP/IP.
How does email work?
E-mail is based on the relay principle. A mail message is created on the local computer by means of a mail program. Then, after the Internet connection, it is transmitted to the mail server, and then moves through the chain of mail servers, until it reaches the addressee’s server. As soon as the addressee connects to his mail server, he automatically receives everything that has accumulated in his “mailbox”.
A wide variety of files can be attached to the email: graphics, audio, programs, etc. The addressee will receive them along with the files. The addressee will receive them along with the text of the letter (it’s like putting a picture in an envelope with the letter).
For the convenience, availability and practical free of charge nature of e-mail, as well as for other “free” Internet resources, you will inevitably have to pay, spending a lot of effort to fight against the advertising letters that will pile up in your inbox every day.
The funny thing is that mail junk inherited its name… from the Hormel Foods canned meats produced in the U.S. since the 1920s! In the post-war years, the company had to “stimulate” demand with blatant advertising: “spam” reigned everywhere – on newspaper pages, television screens, not to mention specialized cookbooks devoted to canned meat dishes!
The concept of “e-mail spam” was born through the activities of a married couple of American lawyers Lawrence Kanter and Martha Siegel: in early 1978, their company of the year literally flooded the few then users of the Web in a mass of advertising letters …
Alas, the pioneers of “spam” did not get any commercial benefit: The indignant addressees of their letters resulted in disbarment of the first two “spammers” and the closure of their company. However, that didn’t stop Kanter and Siegel from subsequently making a living writing manuals on “How to Properly Advertise Your Business on the Internet”…
To get on the list of spammers, sometimes it’s enough just once to “light up” your e-mail address on the Internet, leaving a message in the guest book, registering on any forum… But how do you save yourself from spam? You have to know the tricks of spammers and follow a few rules.
Instructions for the final examination
The test contains 12 tasks and consists of 3 parts. You have 40 minutes to complete it.
Part I consists of 6 questions and each question has 4 possible answers, one of which is correct. Circle the correct answer you have chosen.
Part II consists of 4 matching problems, with a sequence of numbers, with a short answer, with pictures and with an outline map.
Part III has two assignments: an answer and a score for the sum of the years in history.
We wish you success!
From which occupation did cattle breeding arise?
1) from agriculture 2) from boarding 3) from gathering 4) from hunting
2. Which country was located on the banks of the Nile from the first to the threshold to the Mediterranean Sea?
1) Nubia 2) Egypt 3) Assyria 4) Babylon
3) What did ancient people use to make their first tools?
1) stone 2) bronze 3) copper 4) iron
4. What does the word “bible” mean in Greek?
1) word 2) book 3) commandment 4) teaching
5. Who is the author of the poem The Iliad?
1) Sophocles 2) Patroclus 3) Pericles 4) Homer
6. The commander who led the army of Carthage against Rome:
1) Hannibal 2) Alexander 3) Pyrrhus 4) Atilla
1. Correlate the concept with the definition. One element in the left column corresponds to one element in the right column.
B. the ilots
1. The council of nobles in Attica
2. areas conquered by Rome
3. the governing body in Rome, in which the elders of the clans met
4. slaves who belonged to the Spartan state
Write the answer in the table.
2. Which of the suggested items refers to the history of Ancient Egypt? Give the number and the name of the selected item.