Physical education lessons are the main form of organizing students’ learning activities in the process of mastering the content of the subject. In basic school physical education lessons are divided into three types:
lessons with an educational and cognitive focus
Instructionally oriented lessons
lessons with an educational and training orientation.
Herewith lessons may be planned as complex (with the solution of several pedagogical problems) and as target-oriented (with the predominant solution of a single pedagogical problem) according to their tasks and focus of educational material.
Lessons with an educational and cognitive orientation give students the necessary knowledge, familiarize them with the ways and rules of organization of independent classes, teach skills and abilities for their planning, conducting and monitoring. An important feature of these lessons is that students actively use textbooks on physical education, various didactic materials (e.g. cards) and methodological developments of the teacher.
Lessons with an educational and cognitive orientation have other features:
– The duration of the preparatory part of the lessons is short (up to 5-6 minutes), it includes both previously learned thematic sets of exercises (for example, for the development of flexibility, coordination of movements, formation of the correct posture), and exercises of general developmental character that contribute to the increase of efficiency, activity of processes of attention, memory and thinking. Teaching activities in this part of the lesson may be organized on a frontal basis, in study groups, or individually (or with a small group of pupils).
– in the main part of the lesson educational and motor components are distinguished respectively. The educational component includes comprehension by children of educational knowledge and acquaintance to ways of physical activity. Depending on the volume of the educational material the duration of this part of a lesson can be from 3 up to 15 minutes. The motor component includes teaching motor actions and development of physical qualities of pupils. The duration of this part of the lesson will depend on the time required to solve the tasks planned in the educational component. Between educational and motor components of the main part of the lesson it is necessary to include a compulsory warm-up (up to 5-7 minutes), which by its nature should correlate with the tasks of the motor component. At the same time, if the lesson is carried out on the type of the target lesson, the whole time of the main part is devoted to the solution of the appropriate pedagogical problem.
– The duration of the final part of the lesson depends on the duration of the main part but does not exceed 5-7 minutes.
Lessons with the educational-training orientation are mainly used for teaching practical material contained in the section “Physical perfection” (gymnastics with the basics of acrobatics, track and field athletics, etc.). At the same lessons, students learn and educational knowledge, but only those that relate to the subject of training (e.g., names of exercises, descriptions of techniques, etc.). In the basic school this type of lessons is carried out according to the type of complex lessons with the solution of several pedagogical tasks.
Distinctive features of the planning of these lessons:
– The planning of the teaching tasks is performed according to the logic of a step-by-step formation of a motor skill: initial instruction, in-depth mastering and consolidation, and improvement
– The planning of mastering physical exercises is harmonized with the teaching objectives, and the dynamics of the load is harmonized with the laws of the gradual increase of fatigue arising in the process of their performance;
– planning of the development of physical qualities is carried out after solving the problems of training in a certain sequence: 1) flexibility, coordination of movements, speed, 2) strength (speed and proper strength abilities), and 3) endurance (general and special).
Lessons with an educational and training orientation are used to develop physical qualities and are conducted in the framework of targeted physical training. In the basic school such lessons are conducted mainly as targeted lessons and are planned on the basis of the principles of sports training:
First, with the observance of the ratio of the volume of training load in general and special training;
Secondly, with a systematic cyclic dynamics of increasing the volume and intensity of the load;
Thirdly, with a focus on achieving a specific result in the corresponding cycle of training lessons.
Besides the target development of physical qualities, at these lessons it is necessary to communicate to pupils the relevant knowledge, to form in them ideas about physical training and physical qualities, physical load and its influence on the development of body systems. Besides, at the lessons with the educational and training orientation pupils are taught how to control the size and functional orientation of physical load, as well as how to regulate it in the process of performance of training tasks.
Distinctive features of goal-oriented lessons are:
– Ensuring a gradual increase in the magnitude of physical activity throughout the main part of the lesson;
– planning a relatively long final part of the lesson (up to 7-9 minutes);
– Using developmental (heart rate up to 160 beats/min) and training (heart rate over 160 beats/min) regimes as the main exercise regimes
– provision of individual (differentiated) selection of training tasks which are performed by students independently on the basis of heart rate control and individual well-being.
In general each type of physical education lessons has an educational orientation and, if possible, should actively include pupils in various forms of independent activity (independent exercises and training tasks). At the same time the knowledge and skills acquired by pupils at lessons should be included in the system of homework in which they are reinforced.