Relevance: The nutrition of the young body is of particular importance for health, as it should not only cover the energy expended, but also provide the material necessary for the growth and development of all organs and body systems.
Goal of the project: to form the idea of proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle.
– To learn about the origin and meaning of the word ” Vitamins”.
– To find information about vitamins, in what foods they are contained, what significance they have for a person.
-To work out a table about the content of the main vitamins in food.
-To find out where in our city you can buy complex vitamins, to compare the range offered in different pharmacies.
– To find out the availability and places of purchase of products of plant and animal origin.
The importance of vitamins
In addition to proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and mineral salts, food should also contain organic compounds called vitamins. They are involved in all biochemical and physiological processes as the most important regulators of life. Vitamins are not formed in the human body or are formed in insufficient quantities. Vitamins enter the body with food and are required in negligible amounts, amounting to milligrams. The main source of vitamins are plants, which contain, or substances that are already converted into vitamins in the body itself. Vitamins can also be found in animal foods such as liver and fish oil.
Vitamins have a strong and specific effect on growth, development, metabolism, as they are enzymes or are part of the enzymes. In the absence of a particular vitamin in the food there are diseases called avitaminosis, which are a consequence of metabolic disorders.
The relationship of some diseases to the nature of the diet was drawn attention to in ancient times. It has long been known that on long hikes, travel or long voyages in the sea, many fall ill with scurvy. Scurvy was cured by giving the sick person fresh fruit and vegetables, especially lemons and oranges. Young pine needles had a very good effect, and, considering this therapeutic effect, even in the 18th century a large number of young pine tops were exported from Russia to foreign pharmacies for the treatment of scurvy.
The question of nutritional supplements became more serious at the end of the 19th century in connection with beri-beri disease, which was observed in Asia, mainly in Japan, China, and the Pacific Islands. It was established conclusively that beri- beri occurs when eating polished rice; eating unpolished rice does not cause any disease.
It was not until 1911-1912, after the Polish scientist Casimir Funk isolated a preparation from rice bran that he called a vitamin, that the detailed study of vitamins began, and now the study of vitamins has grown into a large section of science.
It is known that about 20 vitamins are needed for normal human life. Vitamins are usually designated by letters of the Latin alphabet. In recent years, vitamins are given other names depending on their chemical structure and substances. Let’s look at some of them.
Vitamin C. Contained in significant quantities in rose hips, black currants, cabbage, tomatoes, carrots, potatoes and other fruits and vegetables. Scurvy develops with a prolonged lack of vitamin C in food. With scurvy, people become weak, their gums become inflamed and bleed, their teeth fall out, and their joints swell.
With hard work and illness, the need for vitamin C increases.
Vitamin C stimulates hormonal regulation, the body’s development processes, resistance to disease. Vitamin C is isolated in its pure form and is obtained by the factory.
Vitamin A. The chemical structure is similar to the substance carotene, contained in plants (carrots, spinach, tomatoes, apricots). The transformation of carotene into vitamin A takes place in the intestinal wall and the liver. Vitamin A is part of the visual pigment contained in the light-sensitive cells of the retina. Carotene and vitamin A in large quantities are also found in animal food – butter, egg yolk, caviar, fish oil. In the absence of vitamin A in the food affects the cornea, skin, respiratory tract. An early manifestation of vitamin A deficiency in the body is “night blindness,” ie, inability to see in low light. Therefore, people whose work requires strenuous vision, need to take extra vitamin A.
B vitamins. This group of vitamins includes several vitamins – B1, B2, B6, B12 and some others. B-group vitamins are found in significant amounts in brewer’s yeast, rye seed shells, rice, legumes, and from animal products – in kidney, liver, egg yolk.
A specific function of B vitamins in the body is that they form enzymes that carry out many of the most important reactions of metabolism.
Vitamin B1 was the first of this group to be discovered. In the absence of food for this vitamin develop lesions of the nervous system – movement disorders, paralysis, leading to death. But if the patient is given food that contains vitamin B1, recovery occurs.
Given that vitamin B1 is not deposited in the body in advance, its intake with food should be regular and even.
Vitamin B6 is involved in the conversion of amino acids and in carbohydrate metabolism.
Vitamin B12 regulates hematopoietic function, nervous tissue growth.
Vitamin D (antirahtic vitamin).
Significant amounts are found in fish oil. It can be formed in the human body under the influence of ultraviolet rays.
Vitamin D antirachthy, is involved in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, is formed in the human skin under the influence of ultraviolet rays.
Lack of vitamin D in children causes a disease called rickets. The bones of rickets children contain insufficient calcium and phosphorus. This leads to curvature of the limb bones, the appearance of the ribs clearly visible thickening, chest deformity. Such children are susceptible to various diseases. The best way to prevent and treat rickets is to eat food containing vitamin D, as well as staying in the sun or artificial ultraviolet irradiation.
Thus, our body, in addition to nutrients, must receive with food the necessary vitamins. This ensures, especially in childhood and adolescence, normal growth, maintenance of efficiency and resistance to disease. In the excessive intake of certain vitamins (eg, A and D) metabolic disorders occur (hypervitaminosis).
Vitaminization of food
To enrich food and processed foods with vitamins at food processing facilities specially made vitaminization flour, refined sugar, margarine, dairy products. In greenhouse complexes, especially in the North, fresh vegetables are grown year-round. This achieves the satisfaction of the population’s need for vitamins.
Sometimes to prevent avitaminosis, to increase the body’s resistance to infectious diseases, to reduce the effects on the body is necessary increased consumption of vitamins, which can not be provided by the usual diet. For this industry produces special preparations containing vitamins. The most common are multivitamins, which are a set of several individual vitamins.
Preservation of vitamins in food
Vitamins need to enter the body continuously and in certain amounts. However, their content in food fluctuates and does not always meet the needs of the body. These fluctuations are associated with seasonal changes in the composition of food, with the duration of storage of fruits and vegetables from the time of ripening to eating.
For example, vitamin A is lost during prolonged storage and drying of vegetables. This can significantly reduce the amount of vitamins in the food and can lead to the danger of developing avitaminosis.
A big role in preserving vitamins also plays a proper cooking. Remember that when the action of high temperature in the meat is lost 15% to 60% of B vitamins, cooking vegetables – up to 20% of B vitamins and 30-50% of vitamin C. In addition, vitamin C is also destroyed in contact with air. Therefore, everyone should know how to cook food properly to preserve it as much vitamins as possible. First of all, vegetables should be peeled and chopped only just before boiling, put into boiling water and simmer briefly in a pot with the lid closed. Boiling water removes the air dissolved in it, which contributes to the preservation of vitamins in food. Vegetables are best boiled in enameled crockery, since contact with metal leads to the destruction of vitamin C. Vegetable dishes should be eaten immediately after cooking. Otherwise, due to contact with the air, vitamin C in them almost completely disappears.
Balanced diet and the inclusion of a full range of vitamins in medical nutrition – mandatory requirements of modern medicine. Vitamins have unique properties. They can reduce or even completely eliminate the side effects of antibiotics and other drugs and generally undesirable effects on the human body. Therefore, the lack of vitamins or their complete absence, as well as an excess of vitamins can not only adversely affect the human body, but also lead to serious illness. Any disease is a test for the body, requiring the mobilization of protective forces, increased consumption of biologically active substances, including vitamins. Therefore, a diet rich in vitamins is useful for everyone. At the same time, certain groups of vitamins have the most pronounced effect in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Of course, before starting to take any vitamin preparations, it is necessary to consult a doctor, because each case has its own characteristics, and the use of vitamins is only part of the treatment.