Assignment 1. Place the following events in chronological order. Indicate your answer as a sequence of numbers.
1) Adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 2) Battle of Saratoga; 3) Colonists clash with British troops at Concord; 4) British and French surrender of major forces at Yoctown; 5) adoption of the United States Constitution; 6) beginning of the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia; 7) England’s recognition of American independence.
Assignment 2. Here is a brief description of the organization and elements of government in the United States. Insert the missing numbers, words, and phrases in the text.
The convention convened at ______________ adopted _________. _________________, which still defines the political structure of the United States.
The head of state is ____________, elected for _____ years. He heads the government, the cabinet. The first person to hold this office was _______________________. The supreme body of the legislature is the bicameral __________________________. The upper house is called _______________, consisting of two representatives from each _____________________. The lower house is ______________________, whose deputies are elected by the population.
A special place in the U.S. political system is _________________,
With broad powers, including the right to interpret the Constitution.
The foundations were laid by __________________ of the U.S. structure, associated with a clear separation of powers between the central and local authorities.
Assignment 3: Identify who the texts above refer to. Underline the words and phrases that helped you complete the task. Write down the name. Answer the questions in writing.
– Virginia planter and lawyer, one of the figures in the American War of Independence. He even included an abolition clause in the draft of the Declaration, of which he was the principal author. ____________________________________________________________
– Philosopher, politician, scientist and economist. He “took the scepter from the titans, the lightning bolt from God.” “Poverty, poetry, and the pursuit of honors make a man ridiculous,” he wrote. Thus were formulated the moral standards by which to live in the New World. _________________________________________________
– This wealthy Virginian planter had gained combat experience during the war, when the colonists fought with the English against the French and the Indians who supported them. Not surprisingly, he was placed at the head of the regular army, the creation of which was decided by the Continental Congress. ______________________________________
1) What were these figures called? _________________________________
2) Whose names should be added to this list? _____________
Assignment 4: What was the outcome of the American War of Independence?
A) The transfer of power into the hands of English aristocrats.
B) The establishment of a republican system.
C) Conquest of national independence and expansion of territory.
D) The complete abolition of slavery.
E) The granting of civil rights and liberties to the Indians.
F) Removing obstacles to the development of capitalism in industry, commerce, and agriculture.
1) ABC 2) BCE 3) CDF 4) BCF
Raising a child is the main task of parents. And the more parents know about the subtleties of child psychology, the easier it will be for them to find an approach to the child. After all, establishing a relationship between the two generations is the responsibility of the parents.
Are there differences in the upbringing of boys and girls?
Children of different sexes have not only physiological differences. They develop differently both physically and psychologically, differ in the development of intellectual abilities, knowledge of the world around them, different ways of reasoning, thinking, thinking, analyzing. A boy cannot become reliable and successful by reaching a certain age, he becomes so day by day while he is growing up. A girl, when she gets married, does not suddenly become a caring and loving wife and mother, she has to be raised that way from birth.
In all traditional cultures, the upbringing of boys and girls has always been different. For example, the culture of Japan has a Boys’ Day and Girls’ Day, and each of these days has ancient traditions, symbolism, accompanied by special rituals.
Even in the democratic American system of upbringing there is a very common motivation applied to boys: “You may someday become president,” but for girls another formulation is used: “You may someday become first lady.”
In Slavic folk pedagogy, trends of differentiated education of children are also clearly seen. The positive example of parents – mother and father – was the key to a successful upbringing. The purpose of upbringing of our ancestors was for boys to learn the role of a man as a breadwinner, defender of the family, and for girls – the role of a mother, a wife, a keeper of the family home. Earlier there was a tradition to wrap up newborn girls in the father’s shirt and boys – in the mother’s shirt. It was believed that this was connected with the programming of the child’s character.
In peasant families, the labor of children was differentiated according to their gender. Girls were involved in caring for younger children, cleaning the house, washing dishes, and acquiring skills in needlework under their mother’s guidance. Boys helped in the harvest, during the haymaking, they were taught how to thresh, harness a horse and steer it. Fathers were not actively involved in child rearing until the child was three years old. They taught their sons how to make crafts, revealed to them the secrets of hunting and fishing. From the age of three, children ate at the communal table, with the mother taking the girl on her lap and the father taking the boy.
Thus, traditional upbringing envisaged social differentiation of the sexes from birth and formed different systems of values and life guidelines for girls and boys.
The main problem in the upbringing of boys and girls in modern society is an equalizing approach.
What factors influence the upbringing of a child?
The first factor is the environment. Children watch the behavior of adults and copy it, so we should remember the main rule of parenting: we bring up by example.
The second factor is the emotional environment. The atmosphere that reigns in the family is very important for the child: respect, mutual understanding and trust will not only strengthen the spiritual ties in the family, but also the development of the child.
And the third factor is personality traits (which also includes gender identity). Parents need to keep in mind that boys and girls develop differently, not only physically, but also psychologically.
Peculiarities of girls’ role models
Girls from an early age are prone to tutelage (they willingly take care of dolls or younger children in the family). Girls usually start school more successfully, which is associated with the natural physiological lag of boys in development and morphological maturation of the brain. Learning success in girls is also higher than in boys, approximately until the period of puberty. They tend to actively participate in social life.
In the team, girls establish contact with other children more quickly. But already in grades 7-8, the number of “outcasts” among girls is greater. Classmates may reject girls because of their temperament and intelligence.
Conflicts between girls are resolved on an emotional level. They use talking to express their feelings, they willingly come into contact with adults, and they try to establish relationships with their friends.
Peculiarities of boys’ role models
Boys are less successful in the elementary grades because morphologically their unequal system matures more slowly than girls. Boys use the area of spatial reasoning to solve math problems. After puberty, boys catch up with their female classmates in academic success. They usually lead in math, because increased levels of testosterone increases spatial orientation, prevents fatigue, and increases the level of determination.
From an early age boys do not just watch what their father is doing, but try to participate in the “male” activities. They are straightforward in their statements, which makes them more understandable and predictable. In the boys’ groups, everyone is fighting for leadership and raising their status. Therefore, boys choose as their friends those who are less successful and is not a competitor.
Conflicts boys solve from a position of strength, rejecting the weaker. If boys meet a child who has any defect, they ostracize him or make him a victim.
Often neglect of academic success is perceived by boys as part of masculine behavior, so they do worse academically.
The division of the class into successful girls and bully boys often provokes the latter to exhibit deviant behavior. And too high demands for obedience from adults can cause uncontrollable aggression and inadequate reactions in boys.
Development of mental functions of girls and boys
|Perception||more sensitive to sound signals;preferably limited space;easily perceive symbols and emotions.||higher hearing acuity;perspective is more important in perception;perceive new information well.|
|The way the information is processed||information is usually processed in a standard, boilerplate way.||constantly looking for new ways to perform familiar operations.|
|Memory||girls rely on rote memorization when they need to learn a lesson;They recite information to remember it better.||best remember the facts that they “discovered” themselves.|
|Operations performed||are the best at manipulating numbers and formulas.||better at manipulating geometric shapes|
|Thinking||pragmatic and concrete thinking, focused on the intended result.||is characterized by high search activity, aimed at finding patterns;spatial thinking is well developed|
|Emotions||direct their feelings to the external plane, talk them through, sometimes repeatedly||Their feelings are experienced internally, although their emotions are quite strong|
What do I need to consider when raising boys and girls?
Boys and girls have different ways of learning.
Scientists have identified major gender differences in elementary school age children.
Girls’ brains mature earlier than boys’.
Girls are better at memorizing numbers and solving logical problems, surpassing boys in speech ability.
Girls have better sensory perception.
Boys can’t hold emotional tension for long, their brain is not adapted to it. In order not to break down, they simply turn off the auditory channel, and the information does not reach their consciousness.
Boys have a harder time with static load, they are more distracted in class, which leads to a breach of discipline.
In the process of learning actions, it is necessary to create a situation of search instead of giving a sample of action, only in this way they will understand and remember the principle of the solution.
Boys have better spatial perception and girls have better sensory perception.
Boys have an immature attitude to learning: they don’t feel responsibility, they don’t worry much about bad grades, and they often forget to write down and do their homework.
Based on the peculiarities of gender development of boys and girls of primary school age, a different approach to learning should also be noted:
When solving a problem, the boy should discover the principle of the solution himself, and with the girl should first be parsed, and then gradually push them to find their own solution to the problems.
Boys need to develop sensory perception and verbal skills. To do this, children should be allowed to touch this or that thing and more often offer to tell stories and make things up. In girls, abstract spatial perception should be developed. To do this, use visualization and hands-on activities with concrete objects.
Boys should not be restricted in movement. It is better to create the appropriate conditions for it.
It is necessary to stimulate competition, activity and leadership in girls.
The reasons for underachievement in girls and boys of primary school age are different: the main reason for girls is poor health, and for boys – poorly developed skills of educational work, a negative attitude towards learning.
In middle school age, boys have more difficulty concentrating and sustaining attention, as they still have difficulty with static load, while girls are more attentive and focused. Girls learn material better through repetition. Boys can’t stand repetition and making them repeat themselves can create a negative attitude toward learning.
Girls in large numbers are visual – that is, absorb information mainly through the visual channel, and boys – audial.
Girls can solve a problem in a verbal way, and boys can help model schemes. The optimal learning path for most boys is from practical actions to theoretical statements; the optimal learning path for most girls is from theory to practice.
Boys and girls respond to assessment in different ways.
Since for girls, emotional communication comes first, so they care who evaluates them, what words they use, it is important for them to “be good. Girls, on the other hand, should not be immediately evaluated, because a strong emotional reaction will not allow her to rationally understand what was said. Remember that girls react very emotionally to all evaluations: both positive and negative.
Boys react only to assessments that are meaningful to them. They are interested in what is being evaluated and the reasoning behind the evaluation. Therefore, an emotional retort will not make any difference to a boy.
If you are going to lecture a boy, be prepared for him to be indifferent to the admonition. Boys have a short emotional peak: he reacted at the beginning of the conversation, and then he has a decrease in the activity of the auditory cortex, and the channel for receiving information closes. Therefore, try to say the most important thing at the beginning of the conversation.
For girls, it is very important to be admired in the presence of other people. For boys, the most important thing is to point out that he has achieved results in a particular skill. This allows them to be proud of themselves and strive for new achievements.
Boys and girls also need praise in different ways.
For children to grow harmonious individuals with adequate self-esteem, their actions should have feedback from parents.
For a boy, it is important to praise his achievements, so that his self-esteem grows through his successes. It is also important for a child to hear another person praising him, for example, a grandmother praising her grandson to his father.
It is important for a girl to be praised for her qualities. If her daughter cooked something, then it is not necessary to say what a delicious dish it turned out, you should praise the girl herself, only then her self-esteem skyrockets.
The word “well done” is emotionally more significant for boys, the word “clever girl” for girls. Remember that girls should be praised as often as possible, don’t be afraid that there will be a lot of praise – a girl cannot be overpraised. Boys should be praised only for their actions, and you should not criticize them for defeat. But telling your child that you love him should be as often as possible and without reason.
During the upbringing of the child, parents should carefully operate with facts about the typical “male” or “female” behavior. Psychologists note that gender stereotypes can have a negative impact on a person’s mental and physical health.
“Men don’t cry,” parents tell a boy who has broken his knee, or lost a favorite toy, or is pining for his mother in kindergarten. “It’s a shame to cry,” the boy understands, and since childhood has tried to suppress his feelings. Thus, his feelings are devalued. And as an adult, a man will suppress his emotions and try not to show them to the people around him.
But crying is a natural physiological reaction, there are no female or male tears. The ban on emotional expression does not change a person’s physiology, because all the negative emotions that a person experiences, do not disappear without leaving a trace, and the body responds to stress by increasing the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline hormones, which affect the cardiovascular system.
But the principle “boys don’t cry” should be learned by the child in the following form: “boys don’t cry over nothing”. And you should not say this phrase when a child has already cried, but when he has stopped himself from crying. In this case, the child becomes proud of himself.
Very often, gender stereotypes limit a person’s perception and can lead to erroneous judgments and conflicts between people. How often families are broken by everyday life, when a working woman gets tired of her incessant duties and a man does not take care of the house and children, and this happens because from childhood they have heard that “cleaning is not a man’s job” and “taking care of the children is a woman’s job”.
Differences in upbringing play a big role, so adults should take into account the peculiarities of raising boys and girls. Considering the gender peculiarities in the process of parenting parents with great success can help the child to open up. Love your children and be a good example for them.